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Author Topic: Aviakollektia VVS Colours 1941 - 1945  (Read 37404 times)
John Thompson
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« on: November 23, 2010, 02:38:02 AM »

Is anyone (KL? Musa?) familiar with this book? How does it compare with the Vakhlamov and Orlov articles in M-Hobby? Thanks!



John
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KL
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« Reply #1 on: November 23, 2010, 09:15:50 AM »

Same thing!  Same authors!
2008 edition of old M-Hobby articles. Suposedly there are some corrections.
32 pages only - deals with 1941-45 period only.

Dec 2007 Aviakolektsiya deals with camouflages and markings of the 1919-1941 period.  Authors are Kondratyev & Kotelnikov.

Cheers,
KL 
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bbrought
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« Reply #2 on: November 23, 2010, 12:11:41 PM »

So you are saying if you can read some Russian this book would be a very good investment?
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BA Broughton
Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #3 on: November 23, 2010, 12:33:39 PM »

Hi bbrought,
It's a thin booklet, it costs few euros only. But there is a fairly readable automatic translation on Arcforum at mid of the topic of Soviet colors of WW2.
Massimo
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John Thompson
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« Reply #4 on: November 23, 2010, 06:08:07 PM »

Same thing!  Same authors!
2008 edition of old M-Hobby articles. Suposedly there are some corrections.
32 pages only - deals with 1941-45 period only.

Dec 2007 Aviakolektsiya deals with camouflages and markings of the 1919-1941 period.  Authors are Kondratyev & Kotelnikov.

Cheers,
KL 

Thanks very much for your reply, Konstantin - since those among us who can read Russian are very few, we'd be in trouble without your help!

Cheers;
John
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John Thompson
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« Reply #5 on: November 23, 2010, 06:43:06 PM »

Hi bbrought,
It's a thin booklet, it costs few euros only. But there is a fairly readable automatic translation on Arcforum at mid of the topic of Soviet colors of WW2.
Massimo

H Massimo - I believe the links for this translation are in post No.123, the third post down on page 7 of that thread, by dragonlance:
http://www.arcforums.com/forums/air/index.php?showtopic=175255&st=120

However, of the two download links offered, neither one works!
http://rapidshare.com/files/294249021/AiK_...lation.rar.html
On this site, there appears the following message in a red bar:
"The file was deleted due to our inactivity-rule (no downloads)."

For the alternate site:
http://depositfiles.com/en/files/ha6ta1n50
...there is a message which says, "Such file does not exist or it has been removed for infringement of copyrights."

So, we're back to where we started!  Sad

John
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Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #6 on: November 23, 2010, 09:49:17 PM »

Hi John,
I have those files on my HD. I can repost them, maybe we all could try to improve the translation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cover:

   
Coloring Aircraft MARKINGS AND SOVIET Air Force,
P. 1941-1945



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Back of front cover: comments to profiles
   
I-153, Kiev Special Military District, Summer 1941 ► Airplane dope painted aluminum colors. Despite the fact that such a color lifted in May 1940, she met and in the early years of the war. The type and location of markings - also on the pre-war pattern

SB, 367 th Article, the Crimean front, fall 1942, aircraft camouflage black spots over the pre-green protective coloring. Marking in accordance with the new scheme, supplemented by a star at Kiel

This IL-4 was an unknown regiment of black-and-green camouflage, but retained pre-war position markings
e ".

Yak-1 of the Black Sea Fleet Air Force, 1942 The plane in the standard camouflage sample 1941 Marking the order in effect since the beginning of the war

IL-2, 174 th shap, Leningrad Front, 1942 The plane of black and green camouflage. Stars marked on the scheme, introduced in June 1941, but have a white and red piping


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Page 1

Annex to the magazine ?Model builders?

. MV Orlov VS Vahlamov



Coloring and symbols of Soviet Aircraft
Air Force, 1941-1945.
Dear fans of aviation!
This release brings you the color and symbols of Soviet aircraft during WWII.
In 2009, you expect the number of Soviet long-range bomber Er-2, the U.S. transport plane 0-130 ?Hercules?, Russian planes and helicopters DRLO (two), the German bomber Yunker, 88, and Russian jet fighters ?Vampire?. The second half of the year will open the room on the deck the Soviet Yak-38 attack plane.
In the first half of the readers can also refer to the special issue on the future bomber Tu-16.

ADD --
akdd --
apdd _
Article --
VIAM --
гв. --
GKO --
GE Air Force --
iad --
EAI --
PAI --
Research Institute of the Air Force --
NCAP protocol --

NKHP --

OKB --
Parma --
PVO --
sbap --
TU --
shad --
shap --







12-2008 was




The journal is registered with the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Press, Broadcasting and Mass Communications. Reg. PI certificate number 77-13435
Published in July 2003
Founder and publisher - JSC ?Editorial Board" Model-horse work for trade
Editor in Chief Alexander S. Raguzina Editor V. Kotelnikov Senior Editor LA STORCHEVAYA computer coding: DA Dolganov Corrector NN Samoilova
Cover:
1 st page - Fig. M. Peter, 2,3-I, and 4 th page - Fig. A. J?rgenson;
127015, Moscow. A-15. Novodmitrovskaya St. .. d.5a. ?Model-Designer?. I 787-35-52. 787-35-54
and ??. pyus) e1 | 51-kop51p1k1og.gi
And by the. By printing. 07.11.2008. Format 60x90 '.. Offset paper № 1. Printing offset. Cond. pech.l.4. Cond. kr-Ott. 10.5. Uch.-ed. l. 6. Order number 3165. Circulation of 1150 copies.
Printed in the branch GUP MO ?CT? ?Resurrection typography?. Address: g.Voskresensk. Moscow region .. st. Vokzalnaya d.30
Opinion editorial staff do not always coincide with the views of the author.
The authors are responsible for the accuracy of the facts, as well as the use of information not subject to publication in the press.
Responsibility to stakeholders in respect of their copyright material carried by the authors.
Reproduction in any form, in whole or in part is prohibited.
List of Abbreviations
Aircraft range, long-range aviation corps, aviation regiment forward; bombing Aviation Regiment, the All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials, Guards;
State Defense Committee;
General Directorate of the Air Force;
fighter aviation division;
fighter aviation corps;
fighter aviation regiment;
Research and Testing Institute, the Air Force;
People's Commissariat of Aviation
industry;
People's Commissariat of the Chemical
industry;
Pilot Design Bureau;
Field aircraft-repair shops;
air defense;
speed bombing Aviation Regiment;
specifications; assault aviation division; fighter aviation regiment
Revision thanked for their assistance in preparing this monograph M. Maslov and S. Trufanova. The section on the structure of the Air Force wrote Kotelnikova B.


In the next issue of ?Aviakollektsii? monography ?Far bomber Er-2?


? JSC ?Editorial Board? Modelist constructor ?, 2008

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pag 2

New Yak-7 on-site plant number 153, 1942
Structure of the Red Army Air Force

Before you begin to learn to color and symbols of the Red Army Air Force aircraft, should say a few words about the structure of the Air Force. that will facilitate understanding of subsequent chapters. In general, it was the type who received subsequent to the reorganization of 1938
At the head stood the Directorate Air Force. which was led by a Chief in June 29, 1941 he was named commander of the Air Force to human drug Deputy Defense. Marine aviation in 1938, finally removed from Air Force Red Army under the command of the Navy. In this paper, it is not considered, although the strength was in its most aircraft of the same type as the Air Force.
The basic structural unit of the Air Force was the regiment that took the number. Rooms may have to repeat parts of various types of aircraft: fighter, bombing and so on. Before the start of the war the regiment usually consisted of five squadrons (at tyazhelobombardirovochnyh regiments - four), and level of management. Squadron consisted of ten aircraft - three levels on three cars and aircraft commander. Thus, the regiment had about 60 cars. Three or five regiments were reduced in the division, two or three division - in the case. Division and corps may be homogeneous (fighter, assault, etc.) or mixed. There were separate regiments and squadrons, not part of the division.
After the German attack on the USSR at the Air Force established the Air Force front-line districts fronts. Using the scheme tested in the war with Finland, aviation divided into front, the army and the military. Each army was subordinate to two aviadivizy Building - squadron.
This structure is in a large-scale war has proved too cumbersome. In addition, affected large losses in technology in the early months of the war. The Regiment consisted of three or even two squadrons, division - of the three regiments of the corps disbanded.
Many shelves in the reorganization was divided into halves, the second half for some time maintained the same number, but with the letter ?a?. Then they assigned their own number. There are temporary aerial connection - aviagruppy that have arbitrary structure. To pre-existing maternity Aviation added night bombing legkomotornaya.
5 Mar, 1942 from the Air Force identified the Aviation range (ADD), reporting directly to the rate of the Supreme high command.
In May 1942, the Air Force instead of fronts and armies were formed Air Army. Typically, a front air-operated, one army. Two eskadrilnye shelves gradually bring up to three squadrons. Regular staff fighter regiment consisted of 40 planes, bombing - of 32. A fighter on the German model, include a link has two pairs, squadron - 12 cars. This structure persisted until the end of World War II.
December 6, 1944 ADD back into the Air Force as the 18 th air army.
The system of military ranks during the war, approximately in line with the current, but the rank of Army General in the Air Force is not misappropriated. It corresponded to the rank of Air Marshal, the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union - Air Chief Marshal. But before the war chief of the Air Force normally has the rank of lieutenant-general. The first marshal of aviation became AA Novikov.
Squadron commander, Senior Lieutenant or Captain, Regiment - Major General, Lieutenant less. Division led by Colonel, Corps - Maj.-Gen.
In addition to parts of the Air Force, at the front were also assigned to the unit GVF. They called aviagruppami and air. Since 1942, they renamed the regiment and division.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


pag.3

Coloring


ABOUT THE TERM

Let's start with clarifying the meaning of the terms ?camouflage?, ?protective coloring? and others. Many use the term ?camouflage? as a synonym for the word ?color?. However, camouflage, or distorting color - this color top and side surfaces of the aircraft big spots are close to prevailing in the Earth's surface color. It is based on the effect of merging some spots stained the background and the allocation of the other, which leads to distortion of the contour of the aircraft.
Protective coloration (not to be confused with the notion of ?green?) - color of upper and side surfaces in a single color, a close (in tone, saturation, and especially on svetlote) to the basic background of the earth. Depending on the protective coloring area can be performed not only in green or white (winter), but other colors.
What is green? During the period of the Soviet Union known as the green color with a yellowish or yellowish-brown tint. Later began to apply the name ?green?. The official name of the color dope brands EN 3 has been ?security?. Often, however, the letter ?3? stands for ?green?.
Nedeshifriruemye paint - paint color that is indistinguishable from the terrestrial background, even with the help of special tools (eg, photographing through filters). The difficulty of this task is that the painted surface with a different spectrogram, can be of the same color, but if you change the conditions of observation (for example, apply the filter or change the lighting), the difference between them can be striking. This phenomenon is called meta-dimensionality of color. Ideally, the paint should have nedeshifriruemye reflection spectrum, it is absolutely identical around the background, so the full nedeshif-riruemosti do not even dream of.

ABOUT TECHNOLOGY Coloring

Coloring all surfaces is the deposition of successive layers of primers, fillers, varnishes and enamels. They are collectively referred to a system of coatings. The need for multiple layers driven by the fact that in one material it is impossible to combine all the properties that must be covered: high adhesion, good pro -

Bomber pilot in the SC four camouflage, August 1940
WIDE features weather-resistant and high decorative or masking properties. The number of layers and the materials used depend on the type of coated. Each layer is applied after drying the previous one.
Before the start of World War II there were four coating systems - for fabrics, plywood (wood) and two options for the metal.
At the tissue obtyazhku first brush caused four to five layers of colorless dope. This provides a stretch canvases, to improve its durability, protects against water, gasoline and oil, and create a more smooth surface. Then, spray equipment or brush apply an intermediate (primer) layer of silver (aluminum), a second lacquer coating protects against ultraviolet radiation exposure. Then the plane through two layers of spray paint dope (or varnishes), the second decorative coating or masking of colors.
On two sheets of plywood put nitrokleya, a thin layer of putty, another fat layer nitrokleya and put the fabric. It caused two layers filling, layer of aluminum dope second cover and two layers of colored dope, according to the pattern color.
For the metal plating on aircraft construction of a mixed model system consisted of a coating layer la komaslyanogo soil with hot air drying or gliftalevogo ground and two layers of colored dope the second coating.
On the metal layer lakomaslyanogo aircraft hit the ground, and then brush or spray equipment ukryvisty one and one finishing layer of oil enamel.
Brands paints, as well as the number of layers during the war have changed.

FOR THE YEAR BEFORE THE WAR

August 28, 1940 six 134-second sbap. based in Podolsk, flew over the airfield NII VVS. Crews have set a task - to determine the number and type of aircraft parked on the airfield.
None of the crew had not even been able to determine the number of cars on the ground. And a different number - from 0 to 17. Only one recognizes the type of bomber aircraft, calling the two Sat. In fact, at the airport were 16 camouflaged vehicles: Six Sat, seven-and 16 three-and-153 and another aircraft of each type of standard protective coloration. The largest Soviet test-distorting painting ended successfully. Now the Air Force leadership to put NCAP protocol on kamuflirovanii in December 15, 1940 all the aircraft in three, four and five colors.
However, to implement the plan lacked materials. Tests were conducted on legkosmyvaemyh kazeinovyh paints a permanent cover is only to be developed and manufactured. New recipes have been tested only in December. But the main difficulty waiting in front. For non-deshifriruemyh paints have a limited set of colors - ocher, orange, lemon and yellow crowns, umber, iron minium, mummy, chromium oxide green, ultramarine, cobalt blue and green. Deposits in the USSR quantity to meet the needs of paint industry, but for the quality of almost all of produced pigments have proved inadequate. Urgently required to ensure high-quality plants, in particular the grinding fineness, the pigment. Temporarily, until the development of matte coating, we decided to make nedeshifriruemye paint ?applicable to the current basis?, ie, glossy.
The base for the camouflage paint was supposed to be color 4BO. For the repainting of the entire Air Force fleet in 1941 would require 124 tons glifta-left or oil enamel and 266 tons of nit-rotsellyuloznyh dope. Yes still have to paint the new machines in factories. To release such a large number of required time.
Despite all carried out in 1940, the work, none of multicolored patterns and was not used in mass production. A recent government decision to pre color planes, made in life, it was an order of Defense, dated 23 May 1940 and the order of 228s NCAP protocol number, the content of which was that of painting was introduced May 25, sa -
> swap
      
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Pag 4
   
Yak-1 Release factory number 301 in the pre-war protective coloration; crashed Jan. 28, 1941 pilot SG Plygunov

Fighters I-16 black-and-green camouflage, caused by field conditions

moletov top green, bottom - in blue. That's what color most Soviet aircraft by the beginning of the war. In addition, the machines were in line early release, entirely covered with a light gray or silver paint.
But OKB-115 AS Jakovleva introduced to their experimental aircraft camouflage, not waiting for the finalization of the test distorting colors in the Air Force Research Institute. Trial-lished in the July-August 1940, UTI-26-1, built in October of that year, I-28 and in April 1941, I-30 carried by a simple two-dazzle.
However, ?the first swallows? spring is not done, and the German pilots attacked June 22, 1941 Soviet airfields, had not long to seek their goals.

BIRTH camouflage

By the end of 1940, the aviation industry had already developed in the manufacture of paints protective, light-green, and tobacco (probably brown) color, which allows you to enter at least three schemes camouflage: security + light green, the security (or light-green ) + security + tobacco and light green + tobacco. However, the documents do not even mention dope EN tobacco color, not to mention on his application.
By early 1941, in VIAM has developed new dope second cover brand new and temporary technical specifications (TU) on them. But getting other than the dope EN, colors, new colors retain their main drawback - glossy surface. This was a desire to pay for them to run faster production.
In 1941, the Air Force ?dozhimali? Industry demand release matte-AE
 
Color Start Make use of the Group
AE-7 Protective horse 1937-early 1938 Oil enamel
AN Zasch. Security around 1937 Nitroemali
Sv.ser. Light gray
 
 
AE-9 Light Gray about 1937 Oil enamel
\ 1-X Silver 1938-1939
 
AN Al. * Silver 1938-1939 Nitroemali
AN Sv.gol. Light Blue 1940
 
Table. tobacco
 
 
Sv.zsl. Light green
 
 
Cream. Cream
 
 
Hor. Orange
 
 
<\-19f light-green enamel Glnftalsvys June 1940
A-18f Light Blue June 1940
 
Notes: * The eereOnny 19411tolko /) To priming elephant under color aerolchkn
The paints used to paint exterior surfaces of aircraft (1937-1940)


Latin America and the Caribbean, which will have been established on the basis of newly developed glossy. They entered the ?added to tarnish? - talc and zinc stearate. New dope called AMT (A - dope. M - dull, but that meant a T, and remains outstanding). Each color had its own number. To paint metal aircraft developed oil enamel around the same Kolerov. Now, left to develop their mass production.
Active participant in the development of new paint was employee VIAM VV Che-botarevsky. Vladimir for his life, made for Soviet aircraft, not less than the well-known master designers while remaining in the shadows. Dedicated to him in a magazine article called ?The man who painted? Aeroflot ?. It is not true, or rather, not the whole truth. Chebotarevsky painted not only (and not so much) ?Aeroflot?, but also all of our military...
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« Last Edit: November 23, 2010, 10:07:31 PM by Massimo Tessitori » Logged
Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #7 on: November 23, 2010, 10:10:07 PM »


pag 5

Raska, which will soon be adopted as models.
In the latest peace Friday. June 20, Narkomat defense issue an order number 0043 ?On the masking of aircraft, runways, airfield facilities?. In addition to a finding of negative facts, the order contains instructions to action: ?By July 20, 1941 by aviation parts, with the workers aviamasterskih to masking color of all available aircraft
Aviation. Since the end of 1930. in the Soviet Union did not build a single aircraft, which would not have fillers, paint or varnish, developed by or with his participation. In the early 1930's - Paint college graduate, in the 1980's - PhD, Professor, State Prize Laureate. Between those dates - dozens of brands of aircraft paints, produced by hundreds and thousands of tons.
May 6, 1941 came the order NCAP protocol number 917ss ?On the distorting color planes?, in which the directors were required to aviation from 1 Oct, 1941 to move to camouflage color top and side surfaces of the aircraft and a light gray bottom. However, camouflage patterns have not yet been identified. Therefore, the introduction of a new painting is divided into several stages. But the plan did not come true.
The decisive impetus for the introduction of camouflage was followed less than a month before the war. Writes in his memoirs AU. Yakovlev: ?At the end of May or early June, executives NCAP protocol and the Air Force was summoned to the Kremlin on masking?. The occasion was a letter to the Central Committee that there was no disguising aircraft in the border districts. The meeting was reported on the ongoing work on camouflage. Stalin instructed to complete them within three days. By that date from Jakovleva produced aircraft models in distorting ca -

UTI-26-1 in Two camouflage, in August 1940 the propeller blades are painted black

according to the attached color scheme, with the exception of the bottom surface of the left with the same color are ... The plan of action to report June 23, 1941 ?
The same day, Air Force Chief of GU PF Zhigarev Approved Instructions for camouflaging color planes the Air Force Red Army. This document consists of four short instructions, signed by the Deputy Chief of Staff of the Air Force Teplinskii, and two-color scheme of black and green camouflage. This number



Camouflaging color scheme for twin airplane instructions 1941
Scheme camouflaging color fighter aircraft for instruction in 1941


?Aviakollekiiya? N'-'12'2 () 08








5

-------------------------------------------------
pag 6


Fighter I-16 unknown regiment. The configuration and location of spots coincide with the standard camouflage scheme, 1941
UT-2MV camouflage in 1941, as it interpreted the plant N ? 47, October 1942
amount of instruction was due to the need to bring in uniform camouflaged aircraft type, with different color options. At the same time do everything to minimize the costs of materials and time.
In metal planes, painted in green on top, it should apply in a single layer brush or spray equipment slick new black oil paints A-26M. In the instructions it is also called AM-26, while the color schemes - FM-26 (pentaphtalic version).
To camouflage stains aircraft with wooden or fabric upholstery needed black dope AMT 6. The color of the underside of the main background and the green remained unchanged.
Repainting of the aircraft, took to this bright (gray or silver) in color, has proven difficult. First, the upper and side surfaces must be met green enamel A-24m (for the all-metal aircraft) or dope AMT-4 (for aircraft with wooden or mixed design). Then put the black camouflage stains. This instruction does not say about the repainting of the bottom surface. It can be concluded that the aircraft were before repainting gray or silver, maintained lower the surface in its original form.
The first scheme was intended to masking color single and the second - to the twin planes. Despite the various classes of vehicles, camouflage was in fact one and the same. Same color (green and black) spots have a similar shape and location. Each scheme has been depicted in the plane of four projections, but the selection last looked strange: on the left, top, bottom and front. It turns out that camouflage the right side could be interpreted executing on your taste.
For schemes of the artist clearly has used the silhouettes of aircraft Yak-1 and Yak-4. However, as the Yak-4 had dvuhkilevoe tail, there is nothing to prevent use of this scheme and for the Pe-2 bombers. Problems can arise when kamuflirovanii aircraft Sat. DB-3 and FS-84. From single machines, no complications have anticipated.
One fact makes it possible to affirm that the color scheme for the aviation industry were greater than for military parts. Unlike the instructions, in which the color of the underside of the silenced, the scheme is written: the lower surface paint ?svetlogoluboy matte painting?. Mark is not specified, but mention of the matte paint says that it is new paint, received designations: A-27M - Oil metal or AMT 7 - dope for fabric or plywood.
The shape and arrangement of black spots, especially at the tail of the plane.
strongly resembled previously mentioned camouflage UTI-26-1. Thus, Yakovlev, a short thought, offered for the widespread introduction of distorting color of their fighter planes.
Instruction signed by the press on the second day of the war - June 23. But in this day hardly anyone remembered the instructions and ?the plan of activities?. Perekrashivat machines forced itself


-------------------------------------------------------------------

   
Yak-1 at the airport the Saratov factory number 292, July 1942 (frame from the film ?One Day of War?). Coloring of the right side is not governed by the instruction

Tail LaGG-3 number 3121376, issued in the factory number 21 in Gorky 10 June, 1941 This was one of 28 fighters, were multicolored camouflage. The photo shows the three spot colors: sand, black and green

Ceremony of Transfer of aircraft Yak-6 as a gift from the people of Chkalov (now Orenburg), April 1943 machines have a standard color scheme for 1941


war, and to do so had already under fire. The first known photographs of the authors of the aircraft, camouflaged in the air force, dated July 13, 1941 course. Instructions for camouflaging color planes the Air Force with the Red Army in the schemes could not have time to get in front of, but these schemes with a sufficient degree of precision used for painting aircraft factories. This is especially true fighter design AS Yakovlev and SA Lavochkin.
At factories rush was no less. In early June 1941 in the factory number 21 in Gorky, in pursuance of an order for fighter jets LaGG-3 started to cause a multi camouflage. According to his Chebotarevskogo taking part in these works, applied color stains consisted of sand, brown, gray, green and black. Used nitrokraski were semi. The shape and location of spots was determined sketches, executed in two or three options. In this way, painted 28 cars. Among them and hit 3-LaGG number 3121376. issued June 10, 1941 to June 14, crashed during a test at maximum speed.
Camouflage was effective even at close distances. Despite this, the remaining 27 machines, so it has not yet transferred to the air force, according to a new order of overdye NCAP protocol number 547ss from June 20, 1941 Instead, they have caused multi-input as a standard dichromatic camouflage.
This Order NCAP protocol factories required from 1 July to switch to color combat, training, and passenger cars on the approved scheme. An exception is the plant number 153 and number 126: it. as remote from the center, set a period of two weeks later. Order defined colors: blue, green and black. In addition, there must have been perekrashivatsya planes in parts of the Air Force. But before the war, the order did not even manage to send out to the plant: delivery was made on 24 and 25 June.
Numerous confirm application of black and green camouflage can be found in the instructions and documentation of repair the first years of the war. This instruction VIAM ?The main types of protective coatings on land the aircraft from corrosion?, approved July 18, 1941, ?Interim guidance on repair of aircraft Yak-1? (1942), ?repair aircraft LaGG-3 and La-5? (1942 d.), ?The catalog of materials for repair of aircraft and engines? (approved April 10, 1943), ?Norms of the consumption of materials for a reconstruction and renovation of the Field? (1943) and others. They regulate the use of color to camouflage dope AMT-4 green. AMT-6 black-and AMT-7 blue enamel or oil-A-24m, 26m A-and A-28m of the same color.
Paints for exterior surfaces of other colors and brands in the documents before 1943 are not mentioned. From dope EN, except quite rarely used a light-blue, there are only red and white (for symbols) and aluminum (for the priming layer of dope AMT).
Let's try to clarify those shades of paint. To help in the albums can be laid -
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« Reply #8 on: November 23, 2010, 10:13:14 PM »

pag.8

   
U-2 in black and green camouflage
I --
IL-2, number 1618, issued by the factory number 381, June 1942 Standard camouflage 1941



juice, ie, samples performed by the colors, not printed. This album released Ministry of Chemical Industry in 1948: It includes all the main colors used in the war. Of course, over the past 50 years (a description and comparison of flowers done in 1996) tinted nakrasok changed, but the storage of the album in the library at a constant temperature and absence of light significantly reduced these changes, making it the most reliable source for the moment. In addition, the shades nakrasok from this album are well consistent with other models of aircraft paint coatings, preserved in Russian archives.
Dope AMT-4 called green. ?Green? - this so-called ?standard? a name that in some cases, not quite accurately the color. A lacquer AMT-4 color 4BO the reference for which a more suitable name of ?security? or ?green with yellowish tinge?. Fresh coating made by the dope, despite its name ?dull?, was semi, which is typical for all the dope AMT. Sometimes the aircraft, painted AMT, top varnish AB-4-d / in. after which the surface became glossy. To do so, as explained in ?Manual for Engineering and Aviation Service (NIAS-43)?, ?to improve the aerodynamic qualities of the plane?. So at the expense of trying to disguise the series of machines to raise the speed to the level of polished test samples.
Dope AMT-6 black color - a case in which the name correctly reflects reality.
Blue lacquer AMT 7 more accurately described as gray-blue. Storage allowed ?a slight change in color?. In parallel with the AMT-7 to use the old dope second cover en Sv.gol. light-blue color. The color of it - really a light-blue, lighter than the AMT-7, almost without shades of gray. Academy of St. Nakraski goal. Al-Boma in 1948 not because By this time he is no longer used, but retained the earlier archival specimens and the remains of the shell of the emergency aircraft.
All the dope is produced in two versions with different viscosity, for painting brush - with index ?to?, and spray equipment - ?p?.
Specifications for AMT-4 and AMT-6 were put in place in early July 1941, the AMT is dope-7 - in August 1941, this explains the absence of this mark in the instruction Jun 20, 1941 Color dope controlled ? on the standard of the approved technical tolerances ?. Intended for the dope dyeing, pre-soaked in a colorless varnish first cover A1N and zagruntovannoy dope second coating AN Al (co
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pag.9


Yak-7B on the site of the plant number 153, 1942 Right-wing fighters are painted on the side of a standard pattern, the red star - with a black border

Camouflage of the I-16 just like a standard, and obviously suffered in front-line conditions

La-5F Captain A. Maksimenko - a gift from the pioneers of Arzamas, Gomel region, in October 1943 remains the standard camouflage aircraft in 1941 over cab - four stars, denoting victory. Hull number painted strict type, characteristic of the second half of the war

which is in time of war is used only for combat aircraft), and wooden structures, pre-okleennyh cloth zashpatlevannyh and zagruntovannyh AN Al. In addition, the AMT is applied to the dope dyeing of mixed metal surfaces of aircraft design. In this case, use a special primer.
Along with the dope had been developed and oil enamel similar colors: A-24m (green), A-26m (black) and A-28m (blue). They were called without stretch mat, which, in addition to tarnish additives (talc and kaolin), their film component. But this component because of its yellowish tint made some changes in color, especially noticeable in bright enamels. For example, the color of A-28m over time acquired a greenish hue due to the resignation of yellow oil varnish with a blue pigment. Greenish grown under the influence of temperature, sunlight, etc.
Green A-24m is little different in color from the dope of AMT-4. Its quite a dark shade concealed difference in the optical properties of nitrocellulose lacquer and oil. A-24m (as dope AMT-4) was originally manufactured on a lead crown (yellow pigment), milori (blue) or chromium oxide (green) and soot with the addition of other pigments.
Enamels were intended to cover the spray equipment zagruntovannyh exterior metal surfaces. Painting brush meant poor paint properties permitted as an exception, subject to subsequent fleytsevaniya.
Until 1944, the three oil enamels produced on temporary TU. This suggests that in 1941 - 1943 biennium. Issue them a little.
Despite numerous orders NCAP results and what the Air Force. outstanding issues from the factories and repair organizations, has remained high. However, acting in its sole discretion managers are not resolved. July 17, 1941 zamnarkoma aircraft industry, PA Voronin sent a letter to the commander of the Air Force PF Zhigarevu, requesting ?Indicate whether the necessary respect for the exact same machines in all the approved schemes you like about the form of drawings, and the relative position of flowers?. In the same letter, were invited to specify whether to use instead of a new matte blue paint (AMT-7) old glossy (EN Goal).
Simplifying the paint coating is usually concerned not so much the outside, how many layers of primers. So. for the U-2, taking into account the shorter period of service during wartime, and to speed up the painting, even at the beginning of the war had been removed two layers: the layer of colorless LA
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quality A1N and sing dope AN Al. In August 1941, the factory number 21 for the same reason on-3 LaGG abandoned priming layer AN Al. Reduced technology in this factory color painting aircraft dope AMT-4, AMT and AMT-6-7 made spray equipment ?one double bed?, with black AMT-6 was applied on the stencil. Attempts to simplify the technology of dyeing factories continued after 1942, often they are not authorized to control organizations. A typical example - a response the Air Force Research Institute of Plant number 387, releasing the U-2: ?Reducing the life of the aircraft in time of war can not serve as grounds for withdrawal of an infinite one cover after another,?.
We can not exclude the possibility of using in the first months of war in the factories and the NCAP protocol. moreover, in repair shops Air Force colors of other brands. The reasons for the lot: the evacuation of factories paint industry, difficulties in the supply of raw materials and finished paints, loss of territories, which were sources of raw materials, etc. etc. All this is threatened release of a program of military equipment and to make use of old stocks dope EN.
Nedefitsitnogo virtually no raw materials. The main task is to replace ostrodefitsitnogo less scarce raw materials. In 1941 - 1942 biennium. lacked even chalk, shedshego for the manufacture of white camouflage paint washes away, to say nothing of nitrocellulose, acetone, ethyl acetate, trikrezilfosfa-those for nitroemaley.
Despite all the difficulties, already in summer 1941 the aviation industry began to produce camouflaged aircraft. The situation with the paint started to come to normal with only the beginning of 1942, organize the supply of raw materials to produce new chemical plants aviakrasok connected. Since 1942, began manufacturing paints for aircraft, one of the largest in the country Yaroslavl plant ?Free Work?. This stabilized the situation. However, a problem with raw materials. Many deposits of pigments are in the Ukraine and were captured by the Germans. This led to seek suitable alternatives from local sources.
One of the conditions for successful masking requires varying colors, which would have disappeared demask factor repeatability options. Stream production method requires the inverse - the standard colors. It is therefore only natural occurrence of variants of standard camouflage scheme, not so much tied to a particular type of aircraft, but all aircraft produced in the same enterprise.
For fighter LaGG-3 and LA-5-gor banking plant is characterized by precise repetition of the standard scheme in 1941 was particularly noticeable halfsphere a black spot on the rear fuselage. Despite some differences, color of these machines can be described as a standard, implying that not only full compliance approved scheme, but most of its elements: color, shape and location of the main spots camouflage. A number of photographs Lavochkin fighters seen opposite color scheme, ie Spot colors are made of opposite colors. Such camouflage is not contrary to the requirements of disguise, on the contrary, embarrassed that these pictures are too small.
When coloring Jakovleva fighters also used a standard scheme of 1941, the Yak-1 Release factory number 292 usually have a compass on the tail spot. The same is seen in photos of Yak-7 plant number 153. But sometimes it is a spot available. In most cases the color of cars follows the standard camouflage on the nose of the fuselage. Most standard stain patterns found in the photos the right side of the plane. And how to find pictures of the same car on both sides is difficult, the question arises: could be, in some cases at the plants, to reduce the frequency of colors, apply camouflage mirror and what we take for deviations from the standard, only his back side is not specified the scheme?
OKB AS Jakovleva continued to stand out among others. Pilot samples ?yaks? often painted of the templates. Some serial machines release Moscow factory (№ 82 and № 301) to replicate their camouflage.
But the Air Force and there were planes, population-chivshie camouflage long before the war. True, they were deployed in Transbaikalia and the Far East. In July
1939 SB bombers involved in the conflict in Halhin-Hole, painted serpentine thin stripes on the original gray or silver background. The bands probably targeted series of protective paint. After the end of the conflict, aircraft perekrashivat did not. 150 th Article IS Polbina, perebroshenny from Siberia in summer 1941, joined the fighting with the Germans on the SB with the painting.
Virtually unknown photography aircraft biplanov (I-15, I-153, U-2) camouflaged in the standard scheme in 1941 at some pictures I-16 spot camouflage, to varying degrees, resemble standard. A similar picture is observed with respect to the MiG-3 - many of them released before the start of the war. All of these airplanes have been a black-and-green camouflage than in factories and in the shelves or Parma. Probably. Instructions for camouflaging coloration time not reached many of combatant forces, or was deemed too complicated there.
But in factories NCAP protocol does not always adhere to the standard scheme. From a very different coloration bombers IL-4. Er-2 and Pe-2. trans-tnyh FP-84 (Li-2). For all of these aircraft is characterized by only the standard combination of colors. At the same time, two-camouflage Yak-6 can be safely described as a standard. Either way, thanks to the efforts of industry and military aircraft. camouflage is gradually becoming commonplace.
Number ?spotted? aircraft in the Air Force has increased, but the effectiveness of the standard black and green camouflage military is not satisfied. ?Camouflage aircraft La-5, like the rest of the domestic fighter, picked unsatisfactory?. Such phrases are often found in reports and letters.

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pag 11

150 th sbap under the command of Ivan S. Polbina arrived from Siberia to the front in summer 1941, Bomber SB kept camouflage caused back in 1939, during fighting in Mongolia

Yak-7 number 3322, painted at the factory washes of white paint in the Air Force Research Institute, 1943 According to the instructions through the white layer of ?slightly translucent core paint coating?


sent to the NCAP protocol. Conducted and testing of new circuits.
In June 1942, the General Directorate of orders and supply the Air Force (Air Force GUZiTS) appealed to the NCAP protocol with the request to paint factories number 21 and number 22 to 20 aircraft LaGG-3 and Pe-2, to test a new three-camouflage. The new scheme was tested in a few shelves in the rear and front, and received positive feedback in the reviews noted its obvious advantages compared to common dichromatic. Until 1943, the question of the broad introduction of three colors was a series of instances, but the final decision has been taken.
To combat aircraft offered other options to color, in particular - Bright uniform for fighters. However, plants continued to produce cars in the two-camouflage until mid-summer 1943
In 1942, in VIAM have developed hard-inflammable hlorvinilovye enamel standard colors: DD-118 (gray, for the internal surfaces), HV-4 (green), HV-6 (black) and XT-7 (blue). In July, they were experienced fighters Jakovleva coloring. Since August, work on the introduction of these materials in industry, but in April 1943 before the work was far away - free facilities at the paint factory was not. Hlorvinilovye enamels were widespread only after the war.

WHITE AS SNOW

This is to be winter protective coloration. It appears, however, that many white pigments (eg, zinc and lead white) spectrum of reflection are strongly different in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum of snow. This allowed using special photography easily detect snow cover on the aircraft, inconspicuous to the naked eye.
By October 1941, at VIAM formulated paint MK-7, nedeshifriruemuyu and in the ultraviolet spectral region. It consisted of a paste (chalk, diluted with water, alcohol, and the addition of 0,1-0,2% ultramarine to address employment zheltova-Cretaceous) and fixing (kazeinovy glue mixed with water). Pasta and fixing mixed immediately before use by a ratio of 6:1, filter and dilute to working strength with water.
Painted directly on the old camouflage in two layers of spray equipment or a two-layer brush. Coloring should be smooth, without roughness, and through it was ?slightly translucent core paint coating?.
Depending on the size of the winter color of chalk krupinok ?eat? from 10 to
25 km / h speed limit. Significantly reduce the loss of speed and even kept it on there could have been, handled painted surface of emery paper or a rough cloth to just prosohshemu layer, but such measures are in front-line conditions seemed little realistic.
MK-7 was used in two ways. According to the instructions of 12 October 1941, it covered all the upper and side surfaces, except for markings. In such an aircraft to be maintained until the spring. When you are at the airport had to be thawed paint partially drain, and when the snow remained quite small, white coating is completely removed with water or soda water.
In the second case, not mentioned in the instructions, but used in practice is often applied white paint spots, forming thus a winter camouflage. This may have been different versions of combinations of colors, which are dependent on the imagination of technicians and the number of available white paints.
Aircraft produced by industry in the winter, were required to paint the MK-7 over the summer camouflage directly on plants.

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Pag 12
   
Connected U-2, which caused the white paint spots. Not zakrasheny location of stars and the vehicle's number. Central Front, 1943

This bomber A-20 is clearly painted in white on the front, with tassels; 1943

The loading of ammunition in transport aircraft Li-2, 1943 Sample winter camouflage, obtained by zakrashivaniya green spots of white paint. The car has both a military red star, and the civil registration number (a stabilizer)

MK-7 was quite fragile, and if coverage has not been updated gradually fade, exposing years of color: on the aircraft by the end of winter itself appeared the so-called ?spring? camouflage.
In addition to chalk MK-7, there were modifications MK-7SH-based plaster, and MK-7F (chalk, diluted with water, alcohol, and formalin). Due to the lack of chalk have been developed and in 1942 passed the test and the other white washes of paint: P-1, C-4a and B, using alabaster, lime or gypsum. In January 1942, the Federal Office ?La kokraspokrytie? suggested recipes white paint to the Chief artuprav leniya-based Uralic gypsum. The paint, called AB-1, manufactured in Perm and served for painting the aircraft SU-2 for the evacuees there plant number 135. According to the Research Institute of the Air Force, it was on its characteristics: flow rate, gain, time of drying and the other - was very close to the MK-7, and the masking properties (in the ultraviolet nedeshifriruemost) exceeded the latter. Nevertheless, widespread in the aviation JSB-1 has not received, the main winter paint remained MK-7.
In addition to the use of washes of paint, in documents referred to isolated cases of winter camouflage aircraft using white oil and nitroemaley and even aluminum dope (for example, in the 6 th IAK in November 1942). Such attempts are thwarted, and not a command system.
In the winter of 1942/43, in the winter color of Soviet aircraft, there have been some changes. Since the introduction of the new fighters in camouflage coloring gray two tone them have ceased to cover the temporary white paint that has been recorded in several orders. Other classes of aircraft are not affected. The true reason for the decision, apparently, was the desire to get rid of the inevitable loss of speed. In this regard, we cite the complete text of the letter ST. Ilyushin aircraft industry drug AI Shahurinu, dated October 1943 (kept the original spelling and punctuation).
?IL-2 komufliruetsya with the release of plants with summer and winter to-muflyazhem.
Winter camouflage painting is made of aircraft chalky paint, which in quality is suitable only for the painting of fences, but not suitable for painting aircraft, firstly because it makes the aircraft extremely rough surface, and secondly, in the process эксплоатации paint lupitsya and aircraft becomes dirty and rough, and even more in the third, when rinsers this paint with hot water is broken canvas covered aircraft and thus the wooden parts will rot.
Plant number 30 in agreement with me suggested that the painting of IL-2 pro -


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pag 13


Long-range bomber Il-4 iz1 th gv.bak. White top, black bottom - color for night flights in the winter
harry-type fighter planes, ie that this painting is much the same in winter and summer.


It was painted an IL-2 by type of Yak and LA and presented for approval by the Chief Engineer Air Force spacecraft v. Repin. Tov. Repin rejected our proposal. Thus still remain for the winter camouflage coloring Cretaceous Il-2. Tov. Repin in an interview with the director of plant number 30 TOV. SMIRNOVA suggested that the loss of speed caused by chalky paint is of no importance for the Il-2.
I think you need to report their disagreement to the color of the aircraft IL-2 chalky paint.
Plants of the aviation industry is working to improve the production of Il-2 in order to increase the maximum speed of the aircraft, but the improvement works are carried out much effort and work. Nevertheless, regardless of that, here, at the same factory, after a well-finished surface of the aircraft, aircraft razmalevyvaetsya as the most common fence. Of course, no desire for workers in factories to work to improve the aerodynamics of the aircraft IL-2 will not be because all of these works is also destroyed.
I request you to raise this issue with the Secretary of the Central Committee of VKP (b) TOV. Malenkova abolishing painting IL-2 in white komuflyazh and adopt a single color for the type of fighter ?.
The text can be seen not only discontent with paint MK-7. but then, at what level to address color: freedom of action of the chief designer had only one color at ?a? aircraft. However, accidentally or not, but his troubles were not quite empty, and have been developed at the end of 1944

CHANGE camouflage

In the second half of 1943 in aviation parts began to receive unusually colored planes, gradually successive green and black machine. New camouflage were regulated ?camouflaging color schemes aircraft?, developed in accordance with the order of NCAP results and what the Air Force Red Army № 389/0133 of 3 July 1943 and approved on 18 July.
?Plans ...? Identify the color and brand of paint, shape and location of camouflage stains. All fighters are now painted on top and the sides in two colors: gray-blue and dark gray; British Pe-2, IL-2, U-2, UT-2 and Yak-6 - in three colors (green, light brown and dark gray), and IL-2, UT-2 and Pe-2 had two options for color. For bombers, IL-4 and Pe-8 prescribed the document instead of a dark-gray color black. The lower surfaces of all aircraft should have had the same blue color as before.
Interestingly, the first, according to tactical and technical requirements of the Air Force Research Institute to develop a paint coating on the aircraft in 1943, approved by Major General Losyukovym February 24, 1943, ?color top and side surfaces of the aircraft must be camouflage with the use of at least three colors: green (the color number 4), black (the color number 6) and sand (color number 1) ?. Numbers of flowers, as seen, coincide with the numbers paint a series of AMT. As developed in April 1943, the draft order of the transition to the new color scheme for all classes of aircraft, including fighter jets, are also planned three-dazzle, with the ratio of green and black (not dark gray, as later), and light-brown color to be as 5:2:3.
Moreover, in April at the Research Institute of the Air Force for testing comes Yak-9, painted in two shades of gray. The conclusion about this camouflage was sharply negative: two shades of gray ?are unsuitable for the backgrounds of most of our local districts. This makes the plane clearly visible in the parking lot on earth, even by visual observation of the naked eye. Its physical properties of gray paint (in this case, both the tone) is deshifriruemoy and with the observation from the air through special glasses also facilitates easy detection of the aircraft. From the perspective of this type of camouflage coloring for combat aircraft was unsuitable ?. The only thing that prevented this conclusion, - to use the gray color as one of the components in the three-or four-color camouflage. Remember these facts and get back to the ?Scheme ...?.
For color planes were allowed to use only standard paints the following brands: green - AMT-4 (for metal surfaces - A-24m), light brown - AMT-1 (A-21м). gray-blue - AMT-11, dark gray - AMT-12 (A-32m), Blue - AMT-7 (A-28m).
Two colors, AMT-4 and AMT-7 (and their oil analogues) already mentioned. Not shown in the list of black paint (for IL-4 and Pe-8), without a doubt, AMT-6, also apply to 1941 and what can we say about the rest?
Light brown dope AMT-1, developed back in 1941, was not called the Air Force until July 1943 when he, as well as on AMT 11 and AMT-12, entered the TOU. Color AMT-1 can be described as a light gray-brown. TU allowed ?minor changes color during storage?. AMT-1, as well as the other paints a series of AMT, provide semi-cover.
TU oil enamel A-21м (analog color AMT-1) introduced in September 1943 the color of the enamel is slightly different from the AMT-1, probably due to differences in the film. Oil varnish compared with nitrocellulose was yellow, so the color of A-21м was more yellow, warm. Another characteristic of oil enamel characteristic of A-21м a matte surface is dry film.
AMT-11 had a medium-dark with a slight shade of blue gray. In 1943, TU oil enamel of the color still missing. This is so. that he then used only for the fighters, among them at that time was not all-metal aircraft, requiring painting with oil enamels. A metal hood for the hybrid design of machines used dope, strikes on the ground ALG-5 with a hot air drying, which can be done without much difficulty in factories NCAP protocol.
Dark gray dope AMT-12 and oil enamel A-32m were replaced with black AMT-6 and A-26m, which are now used only for painting the blades of propellers. Both new enamel sufficiently dark, nearly black, with a dope of AMT-12 was slightly


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II gray-blue ■ "! Dark gray II Light Blue



darker than the A-32m. The reason for such a seemingly minor substitution was made maskirovschikami concluded that pure black in the background of the land does not exist. Even the shadows of the folds in the ground from a height of observation seem to be not black, and dark gray.
Order NCAP protocol and air force determine the procedure for the introduction of the new camouflage patterns in practice. Delivery of all necessary enamels should provide, by 25 July. Beginning with the release of the new camouflage fighters scheduled from 15 July, the remaining aircraft - from 1 August, but before that date, since July 15, prescribed in the existing two-color production machines to replace the black on dark gray. Prior to receiving the standard gray-blue and dark gray colors were allowed to use a mixture nitroemaley AMT-7 (blue) and AMT-6 (black) or oil-A-26m and A-28m, made of special instructions and standards VIAM. Such blending of colors, had never before been allowed, say the special urgency of introducing a new camouflage. Documentary evidence of the use of mixtures of dyes were found as well as the ?special? guidelines and standards. However, to exclude their use in the initial stage of implementation of the new camouflage can not be. In this case, the colors of enamel may significantly differ from the AMT 11 and AMT-12 (A-32m).
In the same part were required to send the aircraft painted in the different versions (for those types who had two versions of camouflage). Repainting of the existing fleet samopetov in the air force is not planning las. Painted on the new schemes should only be repaired aircraft. In the winter of 1943/44 on the orders of Marshal of Aviation AA Novikov all fighters with new camouflage, white is no color.
It is also carried out punctually requirements ?schemes ...? 1943?
Very often, the standard pattern found in the Photographs of fighter aircraft of the period (LaGG-3, La-5, Yak-3, Yak-9). True, the form of spots are distorted neskopko. Most often it is expressed in the absence of precise angles, which, with coloring pupverizatorom without template are rounded. Most differences from ?schemes ...? observed in the white hood. Perhaps this is because their paint coating, the most damageable in operation, are subject to repair.
Otherwise, the case with three camouflage. On airplanes Pe-2, IL-4, Pe-8 or similar cause it was not easy due to the large size. At many plants the introduction of new aircraft paint schemes delayed due to new non-dope, and paint in three colors (not counting the blue for the lower surface), it was difficult


Green II | | Light Brown G "I dark gray] light-blue


") | SI Green
L is light brown I ? I dark gray] light-blue


Camouflage scheme in 1943 for fighter jets

Green II 1 G ~ ~ Light Brown ■ Black II Light Blue
Plans camouflage in 1943 for dive-bomber Pe-2 (two versions)



Camouflage scheme, 1943 for a heavy bomber Pe-8



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M Green
| | Light Brown
[~ ~! dark-gray | light blue





] Green I | light-dark brown-gray light-blue

□ Green
I I a light-brown
1H black
Light Blue



it. than two. On the last day of July, NCAP protocol appealed to the Head of ordering the Air Force, Lieutenant-General NP Seleznyov with a request to provide guidance voenpredam 11 th Main Directorate (legkomotornyh series production aircraft) on the acceptance by September 1, the aircraft with two-camouflage. Of the draft letter as unrealistic dream zamnarkoma aviation industry PV Dementev crossed the retention of two-camouflage for the aircraft and ?for a further period?.
But even if the car was painted in tricolor scheme on the photos is not always possible to see, because cover, made of green paint on AMT-4 (or A-24m) and dark-gray-AMT-12 (A-32m), have similar ratios reflect: up to 9% and 12% respectively. Given that the green color to black and white photographs look dark gray, to distinguish between these colors can only be good for pictures, which camouflaged the surface of well-lit. On this general background clearly just a light-brown enamel AMT-1 (reflection coefficient to 22%).
It was bright spots are identical in shape and location of ?...?, patterns are visible on some photographs IL-2, U-2 and, less frequently, Pe-2. Therefore, with sufficiently high confidence we can speak about their standard tricolor camouflage. There are photographs and other aircraft, such as IL-4, which clearly tricolor camouflage (though his figure does not coincide with the ?circuit ...?).
In ?The scheme ...? no camouflage for the TU-2. At the time of their development-scale production at its factory number 166 in Omsk was stopped. July 17, 1943 (the day prior to the adoption of ?schemes ...?!) left GKO decree for the launch of Tu-2 in the series at Moscow plant number 23. The first series, left the car assembly plant in November. Although it is quite possible to use the camouflage pattern similar in size and configuration of Pe-2, the plant chose to develop its own version of the same three colors (A-21m. A and A-24m-32m).
And finally, the reasons for the change of camouflage. Green and black camouflage is best protected from observation from above the car, standing on the ground or flying at low altitude, when the distance from it to the background is much less than before the observer, and hence can be neglected the influence of atmospheric haze between camouflaged aircraft and the ground.
With the increase of the height difference monitoring sites on Earth's surface color is gradually decreasing, increasingly replacing the difference achromatic, ie, only svetlote. Mist attached color around the background


Scheme in 1943 to camouflage attack plane IL-2 (two versions)
Green II I | light brown on dark gray-blue light I
Camouflage scheme of 1943 for long-range bomber Il-4
Camouflage scheme, 1943 for a light transport aircraft, the Yak-6


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pag 16

yu □ Green
□ light brown EZ dark I Gray Light Blue

II II green light brown [T] (dark-gray light-blue

Camouflage scheme of 1943 for the plane TU-2

Yak-1 with three of the patches of green camouflage, black and light-brown color



cool, bluish tones. In this way, green-black fighter, accumulating high and approaching the enemy, flying at high altitude (the distance from the plane until the background became more than an observer), stands out all the green spots on the blue-gray background of the earth.
Given the long-standing resentment of military black-green color, apparently, the reason is clear: the Soviet aviation, moving to action, to recruit, in direct and figurative sense, height, and which needed a new camouflage. But all is not so simple.
Let's see, how are we looking wooden structure obshivok aircraft. Plywood stick to the frame and covered with two layers of nitrokleya. Then put a thin layer of putty, then again nitrokleya layer, and finally stick the cloth, which was covered with two layers shpatpevki, primers layer dope AN Al (in wartime, this layer can not be), and two layers of dope AMT
In late 1942 - early 1943 NKHP factory in Chelyabinsk and Novosibirsk in nitroshpatlevke AL-22 short lead kroons, which is included in its composition, was replaced in Iron minium. This shpatpevka applied to aviation all winter and spring. During the summer heat in the layer shpatpevki having internal stresses, causing cracking paint layer. Through the cracks penetrated moisture, which sharply reduced the strength prikleyki tissue and led to its isolation. Cracking happened-lo for about a thousand samopetov stained with the use of this shpatpevki. ?Greshipi? this istrebitepi Yak-7 plants,


Camouflage scheme of 1943 for the U-2


Aerial photographs, made in June 1943: 1 - Yak-9 in the two-camouflage; 2 - Yak-1 in three-color
16 ?Aviakollekiiya? N "12'2008


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Yak-9 in camouflage, using two shades of gray, the tests in June 1943, The development of ?aircraft paint schemes obscuring? form spots changed


yes number 153, Yak-1 plant number 292 and La-5 plants number 21 and number 99. Machines lost fighting efficiency. Abandoned in front of the factory team for two or three weeks back in operation defective aircraft, and literally within two or three days after the completion of writes AS Yakovlev, began the famous battle on the Orel-Kursk direction.
Thus, the defect was the cause of poor quality coating, a formula which forcibly took the lead crowns. As can be seen, to solve the deficit problem by filling it was not possible. But the lead crowns belonged to the green enamel A-24m and AMT-4. If you can not abandon him in the fillings, it may be to reduce the flow of paint on the krone? Rezervni recipes include the possibility of replacing the krona and milori one pigment - green oxide of chromium, and chromium oxide was scarce: in 1943 NCAP protocol was only 53.8% of the required amount. Can not proved and the replacement of lead krone to another - zinc: in March 1943 in ?with complete absence of zinc krone? halted production of soil ALG-1 and ALG-5. Output has remained one - drastically reduce the production of green enamel. ?Plans ...? 1943, just respond to such a solution: the most massive class of aircraft - fighters - green is missing completely, as for other machines need to green colors reduced by more than 1.6 times.
Of course, the camouflage of the two shades of gray, becoming a standard, must be at least no worse than other options. To determine its masking properties of 20 - 27 June 1943 in Research Institute of the Air Force were comparative tests between the two Yak-9. nitroemalyami painted gray and blue two shades and two Yak-1: a standard black-and-green camouflage and the other - in three of the patches of green, black and light-brown color, made on the draft of the Air Force camouflage. During the test, visual observation of aircraft on the ground and in flight against a background of sky, clouds, forests, fields and settlements. In addition, the car photographed from different distances.
The best recognized gray camouflage. But some of the points made at the conclusion of the test results are questionable. For example, if you stand on the ground planes of gray-blue color and three observation from 3000 m equally poorly visible and blend with the background of grasses - it is quite possible. But with a decrease in the height of observation strange things begin to happen. With a height of 2000 meters three Yak-1, as numbered in the report, ?well-recognized and sharply visible against the backdrop of the airfield?, a Yak-9 with a gray-blue coloring of ?recognized difficult merges with the background locations -

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Yak-9 from 3-d air force, the winter 1944/45 was the perfect example of convergence with the standard color scheme of white paint in 1943 in the same period in winter is no longer used. Airplane in the background, apparently went to repair and received a larger markings. Three-digit numbers are clearly marked in the regiment and have information about machines

IL-4 from the 50 th гв. apdd allegedly twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Captain VI Osipova. On the bright surfaces clearly visible tricolor camouflage, but not identical to the standard scheme. The lower surface of the plane - black
Attack plane IL-2 at the Leningrad front, May 21, 1944 Three of the four aircraft are painted in accordance with one of the options in 1943 Painting machines with hull number ?12? recalls another option scheme. Airborne attack plane numbers are duplicated in kilyah

Standard IL-2, in the cab - Test VK Kokkinaki. Naturally, the standard camouflage, 1943

Disruption of canvases from the wing of La 5FN number 392120104, issued in May 1943


ty ?. Another interesting pattern was seen when observing with an altitude of 500 m and 1000: ?... both aircraft easily identified, but the gray-blue color better blends with the background of green cover, making it difficult to define the contours of aircraft, while the three-color stands out sharply and well-emerges contour of the plane ?. Of course, light-brown spots of three colors can ?outlier? on a green background, but strangely enough, that blue-gray color blends with the green, with the observation of 500 m. It may be that the conclusions of testers put pressure are other factors?
Certainly the best masking effect of gray-blue color produced in the air, as if the observation against the background of the land, and against the backdrop of the sky. In the latter case, it conceal the size and, in some cases, and the contour of the aircraft, and the distance to it.
Curiously, in the conclusion report of gray-blue color is compared not with three, but only with a standard dichromatic:
?Gray-blue coloring of the upper and lateral surfaces provides the best masking effect in comparison with the mass-produced for the aircraft, a standard dichromatic coloring?.
?Gray-blue color of aircraft Yak-9, № 01-18 considered standard?.

OPTION 1944

March 15, 1944 NCAP protocol is a new order and the Air Force number 194s/045. Director of the plant number 116 and number 168 is required to deliver training and UT-2 UT-2M to the color of the entire aircraft in gray-blue color dope AMT-11 instead of three-camouflage top and side surfaces and bottom blue color. Timing of machines installed in a new guise for the plant number 168 (Volzhsk) - 1 May 1944, and for the plant number 116 (North menovka, Primorsky Krai) - 1 June. Repainting of the existing fleet is not planned. At the same time identifying marks (stars) orders to cause a red dope EN (CD) with a black border.
But the change in color of Soviet aircraft in the current year is not over -
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« Reply #12 on: November 23, 2010, 10:43:37 PM »

pag 19

Color scheme of the type of fighter aircraft
Color scheme of IL-2 and IL-10
The scheme of color planes Pe-2 Pe-2I and TU-2


terminated. 1 Oct, 1944 T-bills issued a ruling in which, among other things, was approved by the ?Military Council of the Air Force proposal to move the spacecraft to a single color planes of all types on the model established for the fighters?. In accordance with this document NCAP protocol and military aircraft fired on Oct. 6, 1944 order № 5590/0207 ?The new camouflage color planes?, which served as the basis for the development of new schemes.
This same order ?on the basis of extensive experience combat aircraft on the fronts of World War II, and given the current air situation?, prescribed to 15 Nov, 1944 to start production of aircraft of all types in a single color for camouflage pattern fighters, ending a full transition by January 1, 1945 additional color to the winter white, all aircraft with the new camouflage were not. Already 18 Oct, 1944 new album has been signed by the chief schemes camouflage of the Air Force lieutenant Yassin, but issued only in 1945
The album is written: ?The top and side surfaces of the aircraft of all types are colored in two colors: gray-blue and dark gray?. For staining allowed to use the ?just coming in to the standard air force paint the following brands?: gray-blue of AMT-11 (for metal surfaces - A-ZZm) and dark gray AMT-12 (A-32m).
Plans are for camouflage fighter. IL-2 and IL-10 (a general scheme for both). Pe-2. Pe-2I and TU-2 (total she-ma). IL-4. Pe-8, Li-2. She 2. Po-2. UT-2 and Yak-6. For each type to give only one answer is color. Even if we consider that gray camouflage proved effective in the fighter, his application for the attack plane IL-2 and IL-10 and connected Po-2 and UT-2 operating at low altitudes, looks strange. We land at small distances, characteristic of the attacks of the enemy fighter planes, gray camouflage less effective than the painting, which includes patches of green. At the same time, the large distances of observation (for example, when searching for standing on the ground attack plane intelligence opponent), green natural way would be to change its hue as the background color. Introduction camouflage of dark gray and gray-blue spots on the attack plane and the planes can be explained only disdain disguise in a conquered the air and (or) even more than the increased scarcity of green pigments for paints.
In addition to already well-known colors of AMT-11. AMT-12 and A-32m in the list included oil and enamel-ZZm. In 1944, the enamel was produced by temporary TU. She needed only to all-metal aircraft, in other cases with white metal surfaces using gray-blue dope AMT-11 (on the ground ALG-1). Compared to the AMT-11 enamel ZZm A look darker: the TU imposed only in 1947, it was called the color of dark gray-blue. Lower surface of all the planes painted in blue (AMT-7 or A-28m).


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pag 20

Description of Mark Color Iveta Appointment Time of application
AMT-6 black with black top and side surfaces, together with the AMT-4 (or A-24m) * 1941-1943 Gt.
A-26m

 
 
 
AMT-4 gsmny protective yellow-green top and side surfaces, together with the AMT-6 (or A-26m) - until July 1943.
later, together with the AMT-1 (A-21м) and AMT-12 (A-32m) for all types of aircraft, except for fighters since 1941
A-24m
 
 
 
 
AMT-1-SVS1LO KOrnCh-gray-brown upper side and poverhnossh all types of aircraft, except for fighters, together with the AMT-4 (A-24m) and AMT-12 (L-32m) in 1943
A-21м isvy gray-brown with a yellowish tinge
 
 
AMT-12 dark-gray very dark, close to the black top and sides together: for the fighter with AMT-11 (A-ZZm). for the rest of the aircraft - with the AMT-4 (A-24m) and AMT-1 (L-21м) Since 1943
A-32m
 
 
 
 
AMT-11 gray-blue gray with a blue shade the upper and side surfaces nsfsbshslsy co-AMT-12 (A-32m) P 1943
A ZZm
  More 1SMNMY. than the AMT-11
  Since 1944
AMT-7 Blue-gray Blue lower poverhnossh From 1941
A-28m
  Greenish-blue **
 
 
MK-7. MK-7f white snow white coloring of the upper and lateral surfaces 1941-1943 biennium.
MK-6 black black coloring of the lower surfaces of aircraft with night-1941
MK-8
 
 
  Since 1942
?Night?
 
 
 
 
Notes: * Since the second half of 194.1.: Only < ?. Shosse color blades air nintov: ? ? features nskoto/mn- time zheppatanni
Enamels and paints applied to masking color planes (1941-1945 gg.)


By 1944, the schemes to be painted, new machines in factories, and repairs took place in workshops.
Standard camouflage in 1944 for fighter aircraft is fully consistent with the model 1943 on bomber Pe-2 old camouflage rather simply turned into a new way zakrashivaniya green fields of gray-blue paint, and light brown - dark gray (except for the stain on the left Kiel ). At Yak-6 is the conversion was carried out similarly, except for one light-brown spots on the left board in the bow of the fuselage.
At the end of convergence, and new camouflage is no other aircraft resembled earlier. At Po-2 and UT-2, border dark gray and gray-blue color formed straight broken lines that, although simplified drawing of camouflage, it was effective only at large distances of observation, when the angles smoothed drawing. However, in a procherchennogo like on a ruler, a West European landscape camouflage may have been acquitted.
Scheme 1944, less used in practice: they were printed and distributed to performers, the war in Europe came to an end, but in peacetime the need for camouflage is no longer acute, and the production of aircraft began to fall. Nevertheless

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Pag 21

Color scheme of Li-2 aircraft
She aircraft paint scheme-2
The scheme of color planes Po-2


it. in 1945 on these schemes dye transport planes She-2 release of plant number 47.
In conclusion, should say a few words on the black paint applied to the underside of the aircraft operating at night. Initially, they were washed off kazeinovye paint. In July 1941, have developed a paint MK-6, consisting of equal amounts by weight of the gas and soot kaolin with the addition of kazeinovogo glue. It differs deeply dull and should have been ?firmly on the lacquered surface?. However, operation revealed a lack of adhesion of MK-6 to the painted surfaces, and in 1942 had been set up other options for black ink: kazeinovaya MK-8 and hlorvinilovaya (will not be washed off with water, and pirobenzolom) ?Night?. Just. as in the MK-6, pigment black for them to serve. Paint ?Night? is produced at the plant number 36 NKHP and widely used for painting aircraft parts ADD. Compared with black dope AMT-6, MK-8 and ?Night? was in 10 - 14 times lower reflectance.
In addition, the order of the ADD in 1943, developed a durably nitromas-lyanuyu black matte enamel A-31NM. Paint the client liked, but its release has not been established.

Front Experience

In the previous chapter, as the color change of aircraft on the orders of the Soviet Air Force and other documents. Now - a story that has remained from the established guidelines in daily life, such as aircraft in the field workshops PARMA-1, were part of the aviation. It is based on recollections VV Pshe-nichnova. in 1941 - 1945 biennium. Chief Parma-1 on PAI-562 air defense, and illustrated with photographs made by them in those years. After graduating from the war, a lieutenant technician. Vadim devoted to the further development of the life of rocket and space technology, became a doctor of technical sciences, professor, and was rewarded with six awards, including the Order of Lenin.
Fall 1941, fighting for Moscow. Regiment lost planes, one after another. Few of the PARMA was concerned about how to restore the damaged airfield dotyanuvshie to ?yaki?, to pick up cars, commit forced landing, and all the less useful the technique re-enter in the system. On the color at a time to think time was left. Oil, only the damaged site.
In winter, all the aircraft painted in white. Used chalk gross, so that the spray and the speech could not have, painting brushes. Work went on a frost, and that a mixture of chalk, casein and water does not freeze, add some alcohol liquid. The resulting surface was provided very rough. White paint successfully lived until the spring of 1942, which was difficult to wash off.
The need for color occurred in two cases: mechanical damage to the aircraft and damage to the surface. The first - tried to paint just renovated the place, not TROGUES remained intact. It is not at -


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temnoseryi gray-blue Blue II


^ Temnoseryi Gray-Blue II Blue

support any standard schemes, which, incidentally, and did not know. Painted more on a whim, but, of course, take into account, as are other planes. The composition shelf equipment often fail to reach the plant, and from the field forced landing after repair, and other parts, because the machine was quite patchy in color, although all had been ?yakami?.
One of the most common defects of Soviet aircraft of the time it was poor quality paint coating. On the causes mentioned above. In addition, the machine is constantly kept under the open sky by the sun, rain and snow (cover closed only the bonnet and cabin). This led to the surface, especially the wings covered with a grid of cracks. In air defense fighter aircraft shelves lived longer than in the aviation front, but even there, through some year and a half of exploitation faced with the need to change the lining of wings.
Restoring sheeting, tried to adhere to plant technology. After removing the old upholstery wing nitrokleem cover, pull the muslin and the top again promazyvali nitrokleem. When it dries, apply the first coating dope, shpaklevali, sometimes for two passes, zashkurivali, and finally moved to the second coating lacquers. Spray painting. Tried to save only one layer, because the problems with obtaining varnishes were permanent.
By contrast, used only paints a series of AMT. No car, tank, acquired

Color scheme of the Yak-6
The scheme of color planes Pe-8


The transport plane She-2, plant number 47 issued in May 1945, painted in strict accordance with the 1944 album schemes machine crashed May 24, 1946 near Gorky, pilot II Velikorad

Carpenter Popov successfully mastered painting, the work; PARMA 1-562-th IAP PVO


retennyh on the side, generally neaviatsionnyh not used ever. Does not occur, and mixing paint to achieve the desired color. If you lack some of them simply changed the ratio pposchadey camouflage blemishes, even more so that his scheme in Parma has not been formally sent. But more or less typical coloration existed, since the work complied with the same people on the planes of the same type.
Painted surfaces tried polishing with cloths, but a noticeable increase in speed is not allowed. In the end, using the template caused plywood board room and the stars, red -

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pag.23


Heavy bomber Pe-8, brought to England for Foreign Affairs of drug VM Molotov, 1943 Interestingly, the bottom of the aircraft - light

Yak-1M, painted on the scheme in 1943, testing at the Research Institute of the Air Force

Coloring of the Po-2 of the 399 th Regiment connection scheme of instruction in 1945


Term paint - technical inscriptions. At the rear fuselage - the number of Parma. Uniform decals to the regiment or squadrons was not, but a kind of color elements on the aircraft is still present. They appeared at the initiative of the pilots or the computers that came from other regiments. At the request of the pilots in a few planes Wheat painted leopards, but on the other trait - by sample figures kaslinskogo casting.

Inside

Since 1930. basis for the internal surface of the oil enamel A-14 steel (gray) colors and glyphs-talevy version of A-14f. When repairs it could be on the surface, painted before that almost any means. Paint it inside of the fuselage, cockpit, frames, rim and disc wheels, racks and chassis brace, motoramy, the internal surface of flaps, engines, etc. are sometimes At the metal surface of the enamel applied for rd tsinkhromatno ground ALG-1 yellow (from light to dark yellow) colors, the wood - at once. Dried enamel film A-14 was brilliant, gray, without any significant shades, colors, secondary svetloty. Dyuralyuminievye carcasses could cover only one ground of ALG-1.
At the beginning of the war made an attempt to simplify the rules of painting internal surfaces. Regulations issued in July 1941. required the following options for coloring metal surfaces: coating paint condition


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« Reply #13 on: November 23, 2010, 10:48:52 PM »

pag 24


'55
In Parma finished painting the Yak-1M, lacking only the stars and numbers. Camouflage colors of two shades of gray, but the pattern repeats in black and green color of fighter aircraft, produced factory number 115
Dashboard LaGG fighter-3, painted gray enamel A-14, August 1941
Since the beginning of the war coloring instrument boards easier. At the Yak-1M, factory number 115 issued in September 1943, it's covered with the usual black ink


yaschey of equal parts of ALG-1 and A-14 enamel or primer ALG-1 with the addition of 6% aluminum powder. Details of the aluminum and magnesium alloys have been subjected to such a coloring, or chemical oxidation in chromic acid anodising; aluminum parts after anodic oxidation in sulfuric acid is not subjected to color. Later, for the color components of magnesium alloys used coating system of the layers of soil ALG-1, varnished enamel bottom-ALG-5 gray-green color and the exterior layer of blue enamel and oil-9 (or gliftalevoy A-9f). Before painting the details of the magnesium alloys, as the least resistant, were subjected to chemical oxidation. Later, steel and aluminum parts have begun to paint a primer ALG-5. This coating was opaque, gray-green secondary svetloty.
Difficulties of supply aviation paint materials requiring possible variations in color depending on the availability of different colors. Therefore, during the war factories internal surfaces painted planes to one of several ways listed below.
Wooden surfaces have four main options for coloring:
two layers of Al dope en gray nitrogruntu DD-113;
two layers of gray hlorvinilovoy enamel DD-118B (using enamel DD-118 applied three layers). It should be noted that some of these enamels because of a shortage of zinc white can made in an aluminum powder. Gray color while becoming silvery gray, two layers of gray A-14 (or A-14f), one layer of resin glue VIAM-BR (mainly for aircraft, which was used in the construction of the delta-wood and used the details of this bonding adhesive).
As an exception to apply dope en Sv.gol. or AMT-7. The interior surfaces of the wooden set to cover discolored varnishes 17-A or AU antiseptic. For the convenience of monitoring the state of joints in welded assemblies can also be applied lacquer 17-A.
When the repair of aircraft choices depended on the availability of material and type of paint, which was done before painting. Enamel A-14 could be placed on any surface, glue VIAM-BR - only to cover the same old adhesive (it looked like the red tape or drilling-red). When there was no glue or resin is done at low temperature can be used hlorvinilovaya enamel DD-118B. Painting the inner surface of lacquer AN Al in repairs are usually not performed because of its scarcity.
Cabins painted mostly gray enamel A-14. At this
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pag 25

Markings:
1 - Star of the specimen in 1941 with a black border, 2 - star of the sample in 1943 with white and red border


allocated against the dashboard. The first half of 1930. it was covered with black semi nitroemalyu FY-5. Later to become instrumental boards used black matte nitrokraska ?T?. The film after drying of the paint to crack priming layer, which was usually red. This produces a pattern of multiple red treschinok on a black background.
For engines used oil and special nitrocellulose Refinishes. There were several options for color engine technology. Before the painting of details were covered with soil ALG-1 or ALG-5 hot-drying. Then on the first two options for painting was made in black enamel gliftalevoy 2086f or two layers nitroemali CF-109 and the top layer nitrolaka CF-6. The film was the last semi-black color with a purple tinge.
Two other options are the motors in the color gray-blue color with two layers of enamel gliftalevoy AM-4 or sequential drawing layers nitroemaley CF-1 and MV-2. These provide glossy enamel coating medium svetloty.




IDENTIFICATION OF THE

Ever since the Civil War, the identification mark of the Soviet military aircraft was a red five-pointed star. In the second half of 1930. Position of the stars standardized: the wings of planes on both top and bottom and two sides of the fuselage. For the symbols used dope EN Kr. on nitropokrytiyu or enamel A-13 - for an oil layer of enamel. Stars have a black border. But in the parts continued to meet the aircraft on which the stars were not only the border, but has canceled entered the black circle.
Just before the start of World War II changed the location of stars. On the upper surfaces of their wings move at the tip, leaving, as before, at the bottom of the fuselage and wings. Along with the green-black camouflage a measure of improved camouflage aircraft. However, under the ?Instructions for camouflaging color planes the Air Force Red Army? of 20 June 1941, there were no stars on the fuselage. This chetyrehpo-zitsionnaya scheme found on some photographs, but widespread use did not find it. The standard was the version with six items.
A separate question - on the border of stars. In 1941, the instructions are image ?

Details of the pre-magnesium alloys oxidize, prime tsinkhromatnym ground ALG-1 and enamel paint the same as the rest of the surface, but always in two layers.
The motors can stain and enamels CF-8 and CF-108, which provide glossy coating of light-gray color. At the suction connections motors orange nitroemalyami CF-3 and MV-4 targeted the octane number of gasoline consumed.
Air-cooled engines were covered with a layer of soil 101/19 (black), and cylinders painted with black oil paint 2318/19, but other details - finishing varnish 102/19, is also black.
By Color propellers never treated as a secondary cause. In addition to protection against corrosion of metal blades and rotting wood, there were still two points. First - color should reduce the reflection of light from the rotating propeller and the second - a gross, rough surface greatly reduced the speed of the aircraft. Since 1941, the blade color matte oil enamel A-26m or dope AMT 6. In both cases, before

SYMBOLS

wife without okantovok, but mention of the abolition of the black, too, Kant is not. Probably, this circumstance allowed to cause as a star with fringing (plant number 153). and without them (plant number 292).
But it is not so easy to meet all the requirements of the Air Force: black and green camouflage pattern pilots little effective, and markings - not enough visible. Under orders from September 3, 1943 ?On the improvement of the visibility of markings on the aircraft the Air Force spacecraft? star began to paint with two border: white - a width of 5 cm and red - 1 cm Although before around stars here and there caused a white border. After 1943, neither the stars themselves, or their position has not changed until 1955
There is no rules without exceptions. So. LaGG for-3 and Yak-3 plant number 31 on the typical star Kiel size reduction. Sometimes the combatant forces, instead of white stars okantovyvali aluminum or yellow. According to already mentioned NCAP protocol and ordered the commander of the Air Force on 15 March 1944, at UT-2 factory number 116 and number 168 should cause the star with a black border. The transition to such signs had been installed to the factory number 168 - 1 May, № 116 - with 1 June, 1944
During the war, the Air Force handed over part of the civil aircraft fleet. Before that they were marking, consisting of the inscription ?USSR?, letters coloring applied primer ALG-1 or ALG-5, and for the AMT-6 could be a red-brown primer 138A.
Coloring tanks, pipes and aggregates of different systems for ease of maintenance performed is always the same color. So. tanks and pipelines benzosistemy had a yellow color (oil enamel A-6). water system - green (A-7), oil system - brown (A-8). Elements and assemblies of hydraulic system were covered with blue enamel A-9, oxygen - Blue A-10, the air - a black A-12 fire-fighting equipment and the system of neutral gas - red A-13. Such a system, at least since 1937, and deviations from it may have arisen only because of the lack of paint. So. for example, in 1943, the factory number 21 tube hydraulic paint nitroemalyu AN Al.
All of the above enamel had glossy, A-7 had a poisonous green tint, brown A-8 was quite dark.
In addition to oil enamels, all of these systems could nitroemalyami DM painted the same color, but a few other shades.



business or organization the owner and the sign of the aircraft, consisting of Arabic numerals. Such signs (eg, Soviet-L804) is applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the wing and the fuselage sides. After the transfer of many Air Force aircraft GVF were quite curious symbol of the combined military and civilian. At the fuselage instead of the inscription ?USSR? hit the red star, a digital number, sometimes together with letters attached. The digital part with a number of the aircraft became airborne.

For machines of French and Polish parts, fought on the side of the USSR, except for red stars, representing the national emblem. Size was significantly smaller than their Soviet symbols. Thus, the French cockade and Polish ?shahovnitsa?, at best, played the role of tactical symbols.

?Aviakollekiiya? № 12'2 () 08
25

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I-16 type 5 in one-protective coloration and to pre-war arrangement of symbols
German soldier inspects stricken fighter I-153, Summer 1941 The aircraft was met in the war silvery white stars inside the circle
Yak-7 at the factory number 153, 1942


Hull number and tactical SYMBOLS

In 1941, the aircraft took first Luftwaffe attack, except in most of its stars have only the hull number on the vertical tail. Rooms are single or double, they are applied in the combatant forces. Color them to be red, black, white, blue or yellow, and refers to belonging to a regiment or squadron.
Since the beginning of the war room on the side most fighters have been applied directly to plants. The numbers came from the factory part number denoting the number of aircraft in the series. The color was usually white. In the first years of war, the font looked like a handwritten numerals, later standardized, done

La 5FN standard camouflage of 1943, summer 1945: The car has a full set of symbols: the identification of the (sample 1943), board room, a symbol update ( ?FN? on the bonnet) and the technical inscription
> swap

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pag 27

   
Fighter I-153, Summer 1941, aircraft painted in green on top, bottom, in blue, with a circle of stars. Writing tactical numbers on the steering direction is typical for the beginning of the war

La 5FN of the 32 th of PAI, the summer of 1943, aircraft has a black and green camouflage scheme, 1941 Font hull number is typical for cars produced factory number 21 in the second half of the war. Kok and the front of the hood, perhaps, gray-blue (AMT-7), this may be the symbol of belonging to a regiment or squadron

Transport aircraft Lee-2 on the 1 st Baltic Front, 1944 The aircraft was atypical in color. Onboard number ?4054? - part of a former civilian designation ?L4054?


whether more stringent entered a black, red or blue border. Typically, the number remained unchanged until the end of the aircraft. However, sometimes in parts of paint and apply new ones. The reasons could be different: individual ?affection? pilot, to a certain number, the same number of different planes and stuff. For example, the Yak-9B 168-th IAP, based on the means of Muscovites, already on the day of delivery (13 June 1944) carried the numbers from 1 to 12 and the inscription ?Moscow?. The machines were set for the pilots, and with the loss of the machine on a new airplane pilot appeared ?his? number.
At the bombers numbers are usually applied in the air force. In 1943, Pe-8 890-th apdd have blue numbers from 1 to 15. Machines first squadron held a number from 1 to 5 th, the second - from the 6 th to 10 th and the third - from 11 th to 15 th.
For the interaction of pilots in combat must be rapidly and accurately determine where the aircraft commander, where the slave, and who comes to you in the tail ... To do so, began to paint in different colors of coca, bonnets, rudder direction, the upper part of keels (the so-called ?caps?), as well as paint stripes on the vertical tail, fuselage and the plane of the aircraft. Sometimes used, and special emblems. All of these showed signs of the machine to a particular squadron, regiment or division. We used colors of red, white, blue and yellow colors, including those intended for painting of internal surfaces.
Unified system of tactical symbols in the Soviet Air Force did not exist. Benefits would be less than harm. Such a system would be too difficult for the pilots in the battle of perception, and at the same time, could be deciphered enemy. But the anarchy in this matter is not allowed. Usually designations approved by an order from a superior commander.
A few examples. Fighters 3rd EAI bore the bow of the fuselage as the wing emblem with a star and the sword and cut a swastika. Planes 813th IAP show up white transverse stripe around the fuselage just behind the cab, 156-th IAP - alternating red and silver stripes on the steering wheel rotation, both the regiment was composed in the 8 th IAK Lieutenant General AU. Axis-PENKO. At La 5FN and La-7 790-th IAP as a symbol on the hood Regiment applied white stripe to tip forward. Airplanes 828 th shap (included in the 260 th shad) were painted white lower parts of the hood.
Often, for marking aircraft belonging to the squadron used coloring kokov screws. Usually, the first squadron was red coca, the second - the blue, the third - yellow. The use of tactical marked

      


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John Thompson
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« Reply #14 on: November 23, 2010, 10:52:54 PM »

WOW!!! Well done, Massimo!!! Thank you!

John
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