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Author Topic: Aviakollektia VVS Colours 1941 - 1945  (Read 35589 times)
Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #15 on: November 23, 2010, 10:54:23 PM »


pag 28

Drawing Room in Parma on-board using the template
Gvroy Soviet Union, Captain S. Makovsky with his Yak-9K, 43rd PAI. At the bow of the fighter aircraft - the emblem of the 3rd IAK, winged sword
Yak-9 Fighter Squadron commander, 6 th PAI Hero of the Soviet Union, Mikhail I. Grib, in May 1944 at Kiel on the star - the little star won
She-2 release of plant number 47 in the standard color 1944 photo was taken June 13, 1946, but on the plane so far - a combination of military and civilian signs



tions. First of all, red is likely to have an ideological basis. Yellow paint was used least often: the Soviet-German front, the color of their cars using Luftwaffe.
Sometimes the introduction of tactical symbols caused quite specific reasons. In 1944, one regiment of the 1 st гв. shad were charged in the strike on our troops. As it turned out later, to blame the pilots were in the other division. To avoid this in the future, the division commander SD Rods commanded inflict on all the regiments of the British connection, the white band width of about 1 m. The stripes applied to the two planes above and below, approximately half wingspan. With bands such IL-2 1 st гв. shad fly before the end of the war.
In spring 1943, losing orientation, leading Pe-2 brought a group of Yak-1 instead of Taganrog in Rostov, taken by the Germans. The enemy was able to capture a Soviet fighter. Order to destroy the ?how? to Taganrog airfield received AI Pokryshkin, but to find the plane it is not possible. A May 5 Pokryshkin suddenly suffered an attack fighter Yak-1. We decided that the Germans are using the very trophy car. It was necessary to shoot down enemy disguised, but it does not take her for someone else's. Order by 4 th air force at all ?yaks? in the fuselage caused a tail, two black bands. All fighter aircraft ordered front: in the event of a machine without such signs to report to the command post and destroy. Yak-1 with lanes squadron was shot down by Major IV Shmeleva of the 4 th of PAI in the area of Gelendzhik.
Larger signs ?Guards? are common to most parts of the Guards. According to this figure is difficult to determine the number of regiment or division. More informative to this point

-----------------------------------

Yak-1M, gift beekeeper FP Golovatogo, was put on the area of Saratov in the summer of 1944, the board on the left shows the inscription дарственная



La-5 with a signature ?Squadron? Valery Chkalov ?, Manchester City, the summer of 1943 aircraft is a standard color, 1941 Star with a black border, board room type is made, the characteristic of the first half of the war. In the background - the Yak-6 in an unusual three-camouflage


of view - to use as a tactical symbols picture orders. For example, at the end of the war in the Yak-9, 151 th гв. PAI applied for cabin pictures of two orders of the Red Banner and the Order of the Patriotic War. But such a ?picture? photos on a single plane is easy to take for an individual pilot's emblem.
Inscriptions, PERSONAL EMBLEMS AND SYMBOLS VICTORIES

Since the beginning of World War II in the defense fund started to receive money from the labor collectives of enterprises, collective farms, and theaters, as would say now, ?individuals?. This movement could not get support from the government. For its expansion since the end of 1941, shares held by service of combatant forces military equipment based on the collected funds. Usually, if there was no particular desire to ?client?, view and type of weapons is determined by the nearest military factory. Therefore, workers and collective farmers Gorkovskaya area were handed flyers aircraft LaGG-3 and La-5, saratovtsy - Yak-1. Novosibirsk - the Yak-7, Far Eastern chekisty - IL-4. In Moscow, thanks to the concentration of aviation in the capital, the choice was wider. It should be said about the people of Krasnoyarsk. They were forced to ?give? American fighter pilots R-39 coming on lend-lease that, from a legal point of view, looks a bit strange.
The most ambitious event was held in the Gorky region. In December 1942, began raising funds for the squadron ?Valery Chkalov?. Total built about 60 LaGG-3 and LA-5. on the left on the stencil board which caused the inscription ?Squadron? Valery Chkalov ?, and on the right - whose funds built aircraft. These fighter planes flew at 240, 193. 13. 254. 21-m PAI, 4, 111. 88-m and 137-m гв. PAI.
But in the Soviet Union have found people who had the opportunity to purchase military aircraft for their personal money on their own. Among them were ?record?, presented by two Air Force fighter. In particular there are a number of cars bought by parents for their warring sons. There have been cases of acquisition of aircraft by pilots.
Presentation of IL-4 bomber squadrons ?Plato's collective farmer?
> swap
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pag 30

Presented at the aircraft carrying the fuselage of their respective inscriptions. The pilots proud of such machines and are usually kept in the repair of the inscriptions.
Not less than the inscriptions on the Soviet planes were pilots and personal emblems. With the acquisition of combat experience, the pilots no longer afraid to make his car to the other. In the second half of the war have noticed that most of the German pilots fear to engage in battle with painted fighters. Won in the battles of Soviet aviation authority has started work on its pilots.
Personal logo, though, and does not regulated but subject to censorship: politorganov own, ?internal?. This imposes on them the print. None, for example, erotic stories, rare devils and other evil spirits. As a personal emblem met mainly drawings of animals and birds. Most of them depicted lions, tigers and eagles. Although the lions and tigers were unique, the eagles on the planes of different parts very similar to each other as a copy of the prototype. Sometimes the whole picture of the fuselage appeared. For example, the Yak-9 commander of the 2 nd eskadripi 4 th PAI I. Stepanenko was depicted a tiger, prespeduyuschy escaping Gebbepsa.
Often popadapis embpemy with card suit symbols, but ispop-to use only the peaks and worms. At R-39 commander, 1 st Squadron 30 th гв. PAI AP Filatov was showing as many as three cards: a queen, seven, and ace - all peaks. At the Soviet planes painted and open mouth.
The Soviet petchiki otmechapi their air of victory, not only ?narkomovskimi? one hundred grams, but a red five-stars on the sides of their planes. This phenomenon has emerged in the late spring - early summer of 1942, almost simultaneously in many of the shelves.
Perhaps the symbol of victory, coming on the initiative of the season, popuchili the support and approval at various levels. Somewhere in the regulation took place in the form of verbal orders, sometime oformlyapas Order. In particular, 7 Sept, 1942 was issued an order on istrebitepnoy aviation aircraft of the country on the notation of victories, but on September 9, the commander of air defense fighter aircraft, Major-General A. Osipenko approved a provision. According to the document show up the enemy planes shot down five-pointed red star the size of 15 cm, box of aluminum paint stripe width of 1 cm star should cause the left side of the fuselage from the front edge stabipizatora napravpenii in the cab after 10 cm from each other. However, immediately clarified: the star had to apply ?next to a big red star?. When full -

Captain A. Lobanov and Hero of the Soviet Union, Major A. Pavlov (total of both - 43 victories) in La 5FN with the ace of hearts on the bonnet, 41 th gv.iap, April 10, 1945

Black cat, playing with the mouse, was shown in Kiel LaGG-3 Hero of the Soviet Union Galchenko instead of the red star; Karelian Front, 1942
A-20 with a tiger on board the crew of Captain Nowicki, 1943
> swap

-----------------------------------------
pag 31

Classes for the suspension of bombs in the 1 st gv.bad, Poland, 1944, Rear - Pe-2 aircraft, Colonel D. mined. Airplane painted by a certain monster (possibly a crocodile). Guards mark means belonging to a guard part. Original color complete star kokah
La 5FN B. Lukoshkova with the tiger on the bonnet, July 1944


tion gap between the big star and a star next cabin must be higher than in the same manner.
Most airplanes show up only individual victory: a victory in the course of the war less as a fixed group, and whipped the enemy zaschity-valsya someone personally. But if you also indicate the group results, the asterisk or different color border on the personal.
Finally, another option, where personal and team victories together indicate, does not distinguish. For example, the aircraft takes into account the proportion of group victories. But sometimes simply add up all confused. This system was extended to the Karelian Front, where, according to the uniform application of stars in different shelves, there was common for all orders. On the left side and R-40 ?Hurricane? on the red rectangle was drawn from 10 to 30 stars with a rather modest personal successes pilots.
Mainly star hit on the left side. More rarely, mainly in the R-39 (because of its cockpit doors), use of the right. And were willing to show their achievements to all, whereas the star to appear on both sides.
Geroy Soviet Union Nikolai Kozlov with his Yak-1M. On board - star won
On the nose, the star drew almost exclusively on ?Cobra?, for which there was a free bar. On the other fighter wins mark almost always apply to the cockpit or under it. Sometimes the little stars gravitated to the high - were placed symmetrically to its axis, or even right on it. It is rare to squeeze between the hull identification mark and the tail.
To make the star visible, they are sometimes painted on the background of the rectangle, usually red, so-called ?board? or dies. Officially, it was in 7 th air force. In the 324 th iad, a member of this army, in February 1945, issued the order, determines the amount of ?board?: 50 x 25 cm okantovyvali Her white stripe width of 1 cm
The fingers can be counted cases of fixation of victories in the figures or inscriptions. This is the method used, most likely, for the sake of a picture, when you reach a certain outcome, the delivery of new aircraft, or after the war. The most famous cases: planes twice Heroes of the Soviet Union - ND Gu-laeva (R-39 with the inscription ?53 Victory?) and SD Lugansk (Yak-1 with the figure ?32? in the laurel wreath), and La-5 IS Kravtsova on board in the post-war period it was written: ?At this plane the Hero of the Soviet Union guards captain Kravtsov, defending the city of Lenin, shot down 31 enemy aircraft?.
Sometimes the enemy to shoot down and the crews of bombers and attack plane. Then the star appeared, and their planes, but very few such examples: knock rarely draw a small number of stars was not taken. Known IL-2 twice Heroes of the Soviet Union И.Ф. Pavlov and GM Parshina with non -
> swap
      

      

      
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Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #16 on: November 23, 2010, 11:00:25 PM »

pag 32

How many symbols are downed. Seven characters won bore attack plane squadron commander of 175 th гв. shap capital to Alexeyeva.
Bombers celebrated its other accomplishments. In the range aviation - bombing raids on strategic objectives. In the 2 nd гв. akdd in 1943, was made after each event to draw on the white circuit board on the background of the blue bomb dies (or without). Someone wrote a bomb inside a city name that has been bombed.
But not all pilots celebrate their victory. These pilots have been, and Asa, for example. KA Yevstigneyev and AV Voro-zheykin.
The exception for Air Force Red Army won a symbol in the form of swastikas or crosses. Nevertheless met and such. German crosses indicate the French pilots shot down aircraft regiment ?Normandy?. Crossed the swastika was drawn on the Yak-7 commander, 1 st Squadron 271 th IAP VY Hasina.
Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Matveev, commander of 154 th IAP from R-40E ?Kittihauk?, 1942, show that the stars, denoting the personal and team victories - miscellaneous


Double GLEWS Soviet AF Clubs (16 th гв. PAI) poses on the wing of its ?Aerokobry?, September 1944 On the nose of the plane marked by series star, showing his many victories

On board the Il-2, Lieutenant K. Ryabova (190 th shap) stars, indicating the four downed German planes, Western Front, 1943


Literature
Bogdanov N. In the sky - Guards Gatchina. L.. Lenizdat. 1980. Burche EF Naval Air Force camouflage. М.-Л.. 1944. Soviet military aircraft. M.. 1941.
Драбкин A. I have fought for the IL-2. We called the ?suicide?. M.. Yauza-Eksmo. 2005. Persian VA Air ?Valery Chkalov?. Nizhny Novgorod, 1999. Pokryshkin AI Discovering themselves in battle. M. 1986.
Guidance on applying paint coatings in the repair of aircraft. M.. 1944. Russian Archives: The Great Patriotic War: Order of People's Commissars of Defense of the USSR, v. 13 (2-1). M.. 1994.
Materials Russian State Archive of Economics. Russian State Military Archive. Central Archive of Ministry of Defense and the Central Archive of social movements in Moscow.


Mr. Vohlomov
28 December 2007 left zhishi Basil Vahlamov. When it prepares the first publication on this subject in 1997 - 98 years there. where a thief could not be argued with each other no doubt, inserted the word ?may?, ?possible, etc. Now these clauses in the text is smaller. Not because it is not with whom to argue. For 10 years, new documents have been found, would eliminate some of the issues. When working on a version, I erase the wee take into account all the comments of Basil, which remembers and what he has done in the fields. And while Taya that the section on tactical designations and personal emblems, even in a reduced form, it would napisaz better, but I think that in general lpoy monograph Basil would remain satisfied.
M. Orlov
> swap


------------------------------------------------------

third page of cover: color profiles

La-5 with a gift inscription ?Squadron? Valery Chkalov. The aircraft in the standard camouflage 1941 Font airborne numbers is typical for vehicles, plant number 21 produced in the initial period of war

MiG-3, 6 th IAK PVO, Moscow, 1942, executed a dense layer of snow ukryvistym painting generously supplemented demask elements. Perhaps as compensation of the abundance of the red star on the Kiel absent
% \
Yak-7B, 163rd IAP 336 th iad, Selizharovo, Kalinin Front, February 1943 Winter painting is executed in accordance with the instruction: through a layer of white paint covers the main transmission. Airplane demask only red cook screws - part of the rapid recognition
Li-2, 1943 Winter coloring done zakrashivaniem green
Yak-3, French regiment ?Normandie-Niemen?, 303rd iad, May 1945 camouflage stains from dark gray and gray-blue color scheme corresponds to the standard 1943 Cock screws painted in national colors of France, white lightning shows affiliation


----------------------------

fort page of cover: color profiles


U-2, Leningrad Front, Summer 1944 Trichromatic camouflage sample, 1943, executed in a very precise line shape and location of spots of the prescribed pattern

Pe-2, 12 th гв. Article, Leningrad, June 1944 camouflage colors of the standards of 1943, but the shape and location of spots differ from them
IL-1, 211 th shap, 307-I shad. Trichromatic camouflage of the fields of green, light brown and dark gray. The shape and location of spots differ from the standard. Board Room duplicated at Kiel. Slant white stripe on the steering wheel shows the direction of the part or assembly


IL-10, 6-I гв. shad, Germany, May 1945 By the end of the war claim to mask the decline in new cars and camouflage has become to disappear. Victory marked with asterisks, won the crew still on the old attack plane IL-2. Sign ?Guards? - on board a cab. Oblique stripes denotes membership of a regiment or division. An abundance of additional symbols offset the lack of stars on the fuselage
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Well, that is all. Now it would be nice to improve this very rough translation and impagination. Who could help in this, please?

Massimo
      
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John Thompson
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« Reply #17 on: November 24, 2010, 10:13:53 PM »

Does this document exist on-line in a format other than .pdf? I thought of working on the captions of the photos and profiles and creating new images with the English text, but I have this book only as an Adobe Acrobat file and I can't edit individual pages with the software I have now. What I can do, however, is save individual images from the .pdf to a MS Word document, then copy and paste the captions from the translated text, and then edit those. Is this worth doing?

The only way I can create a .jpg file is to print each individual page of the on-line .pdf download, scan it as a .jpg file, then edit the photos on each page after cropping away the text. Obviously this will cause the images to deteriorate somewhat, and it's a lot of work...

Or do we even want the photos and profiles included? Or does someone have a better idea than what I'm trying to do with Acrobat Reader and Word?

John

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learstang
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WWW
« Reply #18 on: November 25, 2010, 12:55:21 AM »

Well, gentlemen, I'm taking a crack at the translation.  Here's what I posted on the ARC Forum discussion "Massimo, I'm working on the text you posted on your site right now, and I figure someone who can read Russian can compare it to the original Russian text to see if I've been accurate. Where there are untranslated Russian words, obviously someone else will have to figure them out (my little Russian dictionary doesn't seem to have many technical terms). Has anyone thought about contacting the original publisher to see if they'd be interested in publishing an English version (if we can all make a reasonably good translation)?"  Here's the link to the thread - http://www.arcforums.com/forums/air/index.php?showtopic=175255&st=500.

Regards,

Jason

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John Thompson
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« Reply #19 on: November 25, 2010, 01:32:46 AM »

...and I've completed the photos and captions up to page 16, so far, including the profiles inside the front cover, and I'm continuing to push onward - somebody stop me if I'm doing the wrong thing!

John
« Last Edit: November 25, 2010, 04:23:03 AM by John Thompson » Logged
learstang
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WWW
« Reply #20 on: November 25, 2010, 04:50:12 AM »

...and I've completed the photos and captions up to page 16, so far, including the profiles inside the front cover, and I'm continuing to push onward - somebody stop me if I'm doing the wrong thing!

John

That's good, John, as I'm just concentrating on the text, not the photographs and captions.

Regards,

Jason
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- Warren William Zevon

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Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #21 on: November 25, 2010, 07:17:28 AM »

Hi John and Jason,
at the present time, I would not complete the work into a .pdf file with photos without the authorization of Orlov, because this would compromise an eventual future commercial translation of the booklet by the author.
Photos and profiles are not strictly necessary to understand the text, and are not necessarily more interesting than those available in many other books. Only the templates are necessary, and are, more or less, the same published on the book of Hornat, so I think that you could post those schemes only to avoid excessive copyright problems.
I was thinking to improve, even if not immediately, the page on soviet colors splitting it in more pages, and including schemes, photos and some text, possibly citations of this book.
Regards
Massimo
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John Thompson
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« Reply #22 on: November 25, 2010, 02:23:03 PM »

Hi Massimo! No problem - I don't want to quit when I'm already half-way finished, so when what I'm doing is complete, I'll e-mail the Word document (I'm starting to remember why I HATE MS Word so much...) to you, and you can do with it as you please - at least you'll have it if you ever want it. I was starting to think about trying to summarize all of the information in the ARCforums VVS colours thread before this project started, but that will need very careful reading, as well as editing by one of our experts - maybe having the Aviakollektsia book translation cleaned up will make that unnecessary, but I think they should at least be compared in case the ARCforums thread has drawn out some new information that can be added to your site.

John
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Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #23 on: November 25, 2010, 04:07:40 PM »

Hi John,
thank you, I'll wait for your mail.
Some gradual improvements could be gradually done on this file, but we'll have to limit its circulatuion to avoid copyright problems, maybe sending it by mail to those people that will require it.
Regards
Massimo
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bonifaz
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« Reply #24 on: November 25, 2010, 08:59:39 PM »

Hi John,
I have those files on my HD. I can repost them, maybe we all could try to improve the translation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cover:

   
Coloring Aircraft MARKINGS AND SOVIET Air Force,
P. 1941-1945



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Back of front cover: comments to profiles
   
I-153, Kiev Special Military District, Summer 1941 ► Airplane dope painted aluminum colors. Despite the fact that such a color lifted in May 1940, she met and in the early years of the war. The type and location of markings - also on the pre-war pattern

SB, 367 th Article, the Crimean front, fall 1942, aircraft camouflage black spots over the pre-green protective coloring. Marking in accordance with the new scheme, supplemented by a star at Kiel

This IL-4 was an unknown regiment of black-and-green camouflage, but retained pre-war position markings
e ".

Yak-1 of the Black Sea Fleet Air Force, 1942 The plane in the standard camouflage sample 1941 Marking the order in effect since the beginning of the war

IL-2, 174 th shap, Leningrad Front, 1942 The plane of black and green camouflage. Stars marked on the scheme, introduced in June 1941, but have a white and red piping


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page 1

Annex to the magazine ?Model builders?

. MV Orlov VS Vahlamov



Coloring and symbols of Soviet Aircraft
Air Force, 1941-1945.
Dear fans of aviation!
This release brings you the color and symbols of Soviet aircraft during WWII.
In 2009, you expect the number of Soviet long-range bomber Er-2, the U.S. transport plane 0-130 ?Hercules?, Russian planes and helicopters DRLO (two), the German bomber Yunker, 88, and Russian jet fighters ?Vampire?. The second half of the year will open the room on the deck the Soviet Yak-38 attack plane.
In the first half of the readers can also refer to the special issue on the future bomber Tu-16.

ADD --
akdd --
apdd _
Article --
VIAM --
гв. --
GKO --
GE Air Force --
iad --
EAI --
PAI --
Research Institute of the Air Force --
NCAP protocol --

NKHP --

OKB --
Parma --
PVO --
sbap --
TU --
shad --
shap --







12-2008 was




The journal is registered with the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Press, Broadcasting and Mass Communications. Reg. PI certificate number 77-13435
Published in July 2003
Founder and publisher - JSC ?Editorial Board" Model-horse work for trade
Editor in Chief Alexander S. Raguzina Editor V. Kotelnikov Senior Editor LA STORCHEVAYA computer coding: DA Dolganov Corrector NN Samoilova
Cover:
1 st page - Fig. M. Peter, 2,3-I, and 4 th page - Fig. A. J?rgenson;
127015, Moscow. A-15. Novodmitrovskaya St. .. d.5a. ?Model-Designer?. I 787-35-52. 787-35-54
and ??. pyus) e1 | 51-kop51p1k1og.gi
And by the. By printing. 07.11.2008. Format 60x90 '.. Offset paper № 1. Printing offset. Cond. pech.l.4. Cond. kr-Ott. 10.5. Uch.-ed. l. 6. Order number 3165. Circulation of 1150 copies.
Printed in the branch GUP MO ?CT? ?Resurrection typography?. Address: g.Voskresensk. Moscow region .. st. Vokzalnaya d.30
Opinion editorial staff do not always coincide with the views of the author.
The authors are responsible for the accuracy of the facts, as well as the use of information not subject to publication in the press.
Responsibility to stakeholders in respect of their copyright material carried by the authors.
Reproduction in any form, in whole or in part is prohibited.
List of Abbreviations
Aircraft range, long-range aviation corps, aviation regiment forward; bombing Aviation Regiment, the All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials, Guards;
State Defense Committee;
General Directorate of the Air Force;
fighter aviation division;
fighter aviation corps;
fighter aviation regiment;
Research and Testing Institute, the Air Force;
People's Commissariat of Aviation
industry;
People's Commissariat of the Chemical
industry;
Pilot Design Bureau;
Field aircraft-repair shops;
air defense;
speed bombing Aviation Regiment;
specifications; assault aviation division; fighter aviation regiment
Revision thanked for their assistance in preparing this monograph M. Maslov and S. Trufanova. The section on the structure of the Air Force wrote Kotelnikova B.


In the next issue of ?Aviakollektsii? monography ?Far bomber Er-2?


? JSC ?Editorial Board? Modelist constructor ?, 2008

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

pag 2

New Yak-7 on-site plant number 153, 1942
Structure of the Red Army Air Force

Before you begin to learn to color and symbols of the Red Army Air Force aircraft, should say a few words about the structure of the Air Force. that will facilitate understanding of subsequent chapters. In general, it was the type who received subsequent to the reorganization of 1938
At the head stood the Directorate Air Force. which was led by a Chief in June 29, 1941 he was named commander of the Air Force to human drug Deputy Defense. Marine aviation in 1938, finally removed from Air Force Red Army under the command of the Navy. In this paper, it is not considered, although the strength was in its most aircraft of the same type as the Air Force.
The basic structural unit of the Air Force was the regiment that took the number. Rooms may have to repeat parts of various types of aircraft: fighter, bombing and so on. Before the start of the war the regiment usually consisted of five squadrons (at tyazhelobombardirovochnyh regiments - four), and level of management. Squadron consisted of ten aircraft - three levels on three cars and aircraft commander. Thus, the regiment had about 60 cars. Three or five regiments were reduced in the division, two or three division - in the case. Division and corps may be homogeneous (fighter, assault, etc.) or mixed. There were separate regiments and squadrons, not part of the division.
After the German attack on the USSR at the Air Force established the Air Force front-line districts fronts. Using the scheme tested in the war with Finland, aviation divided into front, the army and the military. Each army was subordinate to two aviadivizy Building - squadron.
This structure is in a large-scale war has proved too cumbersome. In addition, affected large losses in technology in the early months of the war. The Regiment consisted of three or even two squadrons, division - of the three regiments of the corps disbanded.
Many shelves in the reorganization was divided into halves, the second half for some time maintained the same number, but with the letter ?a?. Then they assigned their own number. There are temporary aerial connection - aviagruppy that have arbitrary structure. To pre-existing maternity Aviation added night bombing legkomotornaya.
5 Mar, 1942 from the Air Force identified the Aviation range (ADD), reporting directly to the rate of the Supreme high command.
In May 1942, the Air Force instead of fronts and armies were formed Air Army. Typically, a front air-operated, one army. Two eskadrilnye shelves gradually bring up to three squadrons. Regular staff fighter regiment consisted of 40 planes, bombing - of 32. A fighter on the German model, include a link has two pairs, squadron - 12 cars. This structure persisted until the end of World War II.
December 6, 1944 ADD back into the Air Force as the 18 th air army.
The system of military ranks during the war, approximately in line with the current, but the rank of Army General in the Air Force is not misappropriated. It corresponded to the rank of Air Marshal, the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union - Air Chief Marshal. But before the war chief of the Air Force normally has the rank of lieutenant-general. The first marshal of aviation became AA Novikov.
Squadron commander, Senior Lieutenant or Captain, Regiment - Major General, Lieutenant less. Division led by Colonel, Corps - Maj.-Gen.
In addition to parts of the Air Force, at the front were also assigned to the unit GVF. They called aviagruppami and air. Since 1942, they renamed the regiment and division.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


pag.3

Coloring


ABOUT THE TERM

Let's start with clarifying the meaning of the terms ?camouflage?, ?protective coloring? and others. Many use the term ?camouflage? as a synonym for the word ?color?. However, camouflage, or distorting color - this color top and side surfaces of the aircraft big spots are close to prevailing in the Earth's surface color. It is based on the effect of merging some spots stained the background and the allocation of the other, which leads to distortion of the contour of the aircraft.
Protective coloration (not to be confused with the notion of ?green?) - color of upper and side surfaces in a single color, a close (in tone, saturation, and especially on svetlote) to the basic background of the earth. Depending on the protective coloring area can be performed not only in green or white (winter), but other colors.
What is green? During the period of the Soviet Union known as the green color with a yellowish or yellowish-brown tint. Later began to apply the name ?green?. The official name of the color dope brands EN 3 has been ?security?. Often, however, the letter ?3? stands for ?green?.
Nedeshifriruemye paint - paint color that is indistinguishable from the terrestrial background, even with the help of special tools (eg, photographing through filters). The difficulty of this task is that the painted surface with a different spectrogram, can be of the same color, but if you change the conditions of observation (for example, apply the filter or change the lighting), the difference between them can be striking. This phenomenon is called meta-dimensionality of color. Ideally, the paint should have nedeshifriruemye reflection spectrum, it is absolutely identical around the background, so the full nedeshif-riruemosti do not even dream of.

ABOUT TECHNOLOGY Coloring

Coloring all surfaces is the deposition of successive layers of primers, fillers, varnishes and enamels. They are collectively referred to a system of coatings. The need for multiple layers driven by the fact that in one material it is impossible to combine all the properties that must be covered: high adhesion, good pro -

Bomber pilot in the SC four camouflage, August 1940
WIDE features weather-resistant and high decorative or masking properties. The number of layers and the materials used depend on the type of coated. Each layer is applied after drying the previous one.
Before the start of World War II there were four coating systems - for fabrics, plywood (wood) and two options for the metal.
At the tissue obtyazhku first brush caused four to five layers of colorless dope. This provides a stretch canvases, to improve its durability, protects against water, gasoline and oil, and create a more smooth surface. Then, spray equipment or brush apply an intermediate (primer) layer of silver (aluminum), a second lacquer coating protects against ultraviolet radiation exposure. Then the plane through two layers of spray paint dope (or varnishes), the second decorative coating or masking of colors.
On two sheets of plywood put nitrokleya, a thin layer of putty, another fat layer nitrokleya and put the fabric. It caused two layers filling, layer of aluminum dope second cover and two layers of colored dope, according to the pattern color.
For the metal plating on aircraft construction of a mixed model system consisted of a coating layer la komaslyanogo soil with hot air drying or gliftalevogo ground and two layers of colored dope the second coating.
On the metal layer lakomaslyanogo aircraft hit the ground, and then brush or spray equipment ukryvisty one and one finishing layer of oil enamel.
Brands paints, as well as the number of layers during the war have changed.

FOR THE YEAR BEFORE THE WAR

August 28, 1940 six 134-second sbap. based in Podolsk, flew over the airfield NII VVS. Crews have set a task - to determine the number and type of aircraft parked on the airfield.
None of the crew had not even been able to determine the number of cars on the ground. And a different number - from 0 to 17. Only one recognizes the type of bomber aircraft, calling the two Sat. In fact, at the airport were 16 camouflaged vehicles: Six Sat, seven-and 16 three-and-153 and another aircraft of each type of standard protective coloration. The largest Soviet test-distorting painting ended successfully. Now the Air Force leadership to put NCAP protocol on kamuflirovanii in December 15, 1940 all the aircraft in three, four and five colors.
However, to implement the plan lacked materials. Tests were conducted on legkosmyvaemyh kazeinovyh paints a permanent cover is only to be developed and manufactured. New recipes have been tested only in December. But the main difficulty waiting in front. For non-deshifriruemyh paints have a limited set of colors - ocher, orange, lemon and yellow crowns, umber, iron minium, mummy, chromium oxide green, ultramarine, cobalt blue and green. Deposits in the USSR quantity to meet the needs of paint industry, but for the quality of almost all of produced pigments have proved inadequate. Urgently required to ensure high-quality plants, in particular the grinding fineness, the pigment. Temporarily, until the development of matte coating, we decided to make nedeshifriruemye paint ?applicable to the current basis?, ie, glossy.
The base for the camouflage paint was supposed to be color 4BO. For the repainting of the entire Air Force fleet in 1941 would require 124 tons glifta-left or oil enamel and 266 tons of nit-rotsellyuloznyh dope. Yes still have to paint the new machines in factories. To release such a large number of required time.
Despite all carried out in 1940, the work, none of multicolored patterns and was not used in mass production. A recent government decision to pre color planes, made in life, it was an order of Defense, dated 23 May 1940 and the order of 228s NCAP protocol number, the content of which was that of painting was introduced May 25, sa -
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Pag 4
   
Yak-1 Release factory number 301 in the pre-war protective coloration; crashed Jan. 28, 1941 pilot SG Plygunov

Fighters I-16 black-and-green camouflage, caused by field conditions

moletov top green, bottom - in blue. That's what color most Soviet aircraft by the beginning of the war. In addition, the machines were in line early release, entirely covered with a light gray or silver paint.
But OKB-115 AS Jakovleva introduced to their experimental aircraft camouflage, not waiting for the finalization of the test distorting colors in the Air Force Research Institute. Trial-lished in the July-August 1940, UTI-26-1, built in October of that year, I-28 and in April 1941, I-30 carried by a simple two-dazzle.
However, ?the first swallows? spring is not done, and the German pilots attacked June 22, 1941 Soviet airfields, had not long to seek their goals.

BIRTH camouflage

By the end of 1940, the aviation industry had already developed in the manufacture of paints protective, light-green, and tobacco (probably brown) color, which allows you to enter at least three schemes camouflage: security + light green, the security (or light-green ) + security + tobacco and light green + tobacco. However, the documents do not even mention dope AII tobacco color, not to mention on his application.
By early 1941, in VIAM has developed new dope second cover brand new and temporary technical specifications (TU) on them. But getting other than the dope AII, colors, new colors retain their main drawback - glossy surface. This was a desire to pay for them to run faster production.
In 1941, the Air Force ?dozhimali? Industry demand release matte-AE
 
Color Start Make use of the Group
AE-7 Protective horse 1937-early 1938 Oil enamel
AII Zasch. Security around 1937 Nitroemali
Sv.ser. Light gray
 
 
AE-9 Light Gray about 1937 Oil enamel
AE -8 Silver 1938-1939
 
AII Al. * Silver 1938-1939 Nitroemali
AII Sv.gol. Light Blue 1940
 
tobacco
 
 
Sv.zsl. Light green
 
 
Cream. Cream
 
 
Hor. Orange
 
 
A-19f light-green enamel Glnftalsvys June 1940
A-18f Light Blue June 1940
 
Notes: * The eereOnny 19411tolko /) To priming elephant under color aerolchkn
The paints used to paint exterior surfaces of aircraft (1937-1940)


Latin America and the Caribbean, which will have been established on the basis of newly developed glossy. They entered the ?added to tarnish? - talc and zinc stearate. New dope called AMT (A - dope. M - dull, but that meant a T, and remains outstanding). Each color had its own number. To paint metal aircraft developed oil enamel around the same Kolerov. Now, left to develop their mass production.
Active participant in the development of new paint was employee VIAM VV Che-botarevsky. Vladimir for his life, made for Soviet aircraft, not less than the well-known master designers while remaining in the shadows. Dedicated to him in a magazine article called ?The man who painted? Aeroflot ?. It is not true, or rather, not the whole truth. Chebotarevsky painted not only (and not so much) ?Aeroflot?, but also all of our military...
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Hallo,
I can try this. To translate everything carefully it is not easy for me, because I should to translate the Russian into German and then translate to English. That costs a lot of time, wich I do not have.(Sorry). If someone can translate German into English quickly and good, I will try to translate the text into German and send to him/her.
Cheers Ron
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John Thompson
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« Reply #25 on: November 25, 2010, 10:39:03 PM »

Hallo,
I can try this. To translate everything carefully it is not easy for me, because I should to translate the Russian into German and then translate to English. That costs a lot of time, wich I do not have.(Sorry). If someone can translate German into English quickly and good, I will try to translate the text into German and send to him/her.
Cheers Ron

A very kind offer, and a lot of work for you! My ability to read German is no better than my ability to read Russian, so that leaves me out!

Best regards;
John
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learstang
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« Reply #26 on: December 01, 2010, 06:22:56 PM »

I have finished doing what I can with that text, so if anyone would like to have a go at it, to clean up the mess I've made and translate the words I haven't been able to translate, that would be great.  Preferably it would be someone who also reads Russian, of course, so they can match my feeble attempts with the original text.  Just let me know if anyone's interested!

Regards,

Jason
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John Thompson
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« Reply #27 on: December 01, 2010, 07:14:15 PM »

I have finished doing what I can with that text, so if anyone would like to have a go at it, to clean up the mess I've made and translate the words I haven't been able to translate, that would be great.  Preferably it would be someone who also reads Russian, of course, so they can match my feeble attempts with the original text.  Just let me know if anyone's interested!

Regards,

Jason

That's terrific, Jason - we all owe you a huge vote of thanks for all your hard work! I look forward to seeing the final version on Massimo's research pages soon!

John
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Massimo Tessitori
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« Reply #28 on: December 01, 2010, 07:39:18 PM »

Quote
I have finished doing what I can with that text, so if anyone would like to have a go at it, to clean up the mess I've made and translate the words I haven't been able to translate, that would be great.  Preferably it would be someone who also reads Russian, of course, so they can match my feeble attempts with the original text.  Just let me know if anyone's interested!
Hi Jason,
could you send your text, please? I can't read Russian, but I'm highly interested, hoping that someone will improve it and produce a definitive translation.
Regards
Massimo
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learstang
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« Reply #29 on: December 01, 2010, 10:43:53 PM »

You're welcome, John and I just sent my work to you Massimo.

Regards,

Jason
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